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Priority (Hazardous) Substances Emissions. B.FRIBOURG-BLANC, IOW Technical expert on emissions to water ( b.fribourg-blanc@oieau.fr ). Introduction.

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Priority (Hazardous) Substances Emissions


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    1. Priority (Hazardous) Substances Emissions B.FRIBOURG-BLANC, IOW Technical expert on emissions to water (b.fribourg-blanc@oieau.fr)

    2. Introduction b. Characteristic of diffuse sources is that there are numerous pathways and they are difficult to eliminate. There is no direct link between measures and effect. Reliable source apportionment is important (substance and location specific), because the sources leading to problems can be different for the different pollutants considered. Therefore a good inventory of sources is necessary. (official conclusion Workshop on Diffuse sources May 2008, endorsed by Water Directors)

    3. Present situation 1. Most countries consider point sources are already correctly addressedand focus is needed on diffuse sources 2. But: Past assessment (WFD Art5 reports) showed limited useful data and information (point/diffuse) for European assessment: B: organic + Nut, M: Metals, O: all other sources + no determinand no sources + no determinand (ETC/Water 2005)

    4. A long lasting EU legislative framework 1976: Dangerous Substances Directive (76/464/EEC) “on pollution caused by certain dangerous substances discharged into the aquatic environment of the Community » with List I (eliminate) and List II (reduce) substances 5 Daughter Directives 2000: - EPER (2000/479), register of big point sources (26 substances) - Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC), progressive reduction of discharges, emissions and losses of priority substances and the cessation or phasing-out of discharges, emissions and losses of the priority hazardous substances (33 substances and groups) 2006: Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH: 1907/2006) and ECHA 2008: Proposal for a Directive on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy (version of 23/6/2008, adoption planned for December 2008) (33+13 substances) Other international initiatives: OSPAR and HELCOM Conventions River Conventions

    5. Main regulating approaches Control measures (risk management): - At source, through control of releases: Emission Limit Value (ELV) often expressed as concentration per units of volume and time - At receiving media level, through maximum concentration: Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) Both mainly focussed on concentration, a need to monitor! Other measures: Pollution reduction programmes (DSD), programmes of measures (WFD), inventory (EPER, new EQS Directive) ELV EQS Source : adapted from mixing zone background document, V. Bonnomet, INERIS for DGENV 2007

    6. 23 million organic and inorganic substances 230 000 inventoried or regulated 7 million commercially available From the universe of chemicals… A chemical substance: any material with a definite chemical structure

    7. To Priority (hazardous) Substance… The WFD: "Hazardous substances" means substances or groups of substances that are toxic, persistent and liable to bio-accumulate; and other substances or groups of substances which give rise to an equivalent level of concern. "Priority substances" means substances […] listed in Annex X. Among these substances there are «priority hazardous substances»[…] Annex VIII: Indicative list of the main pollutants (groups of pollutants) Annex X: List of priority substances in the field of water policy (COMMPS+ and update of list) Existing lists: -Dangerous Substances Directive (76/464/EEC), repealed by WFD in 2013 -Plant Protection Products Directive (91/414/EEC) -evaluation and control of the risks of existing substances Regulation (793/93/EEC), repealed -Biocidal products Directive (98/8/EC) -E_PRTR (166/2006) -OECD Representative List of High Production Volume Chemical -OSPAR List of Chemicals for Priority Action - … Some substances addressed in more than one list (Cd in 8 lists) Some others only in one list (PAH, PCB…)

    8. Organic substances (micropollutants) Metals and metalloids pesticides Main groups of PS/PHS (WFD) • Organohalogen compounds • Organophosphorus compounds • Organotin compounds • CMR Substances and preparations • Persistent hydrocarbons and persistent and bioaccumulable organic toxic substances • Cyanides • Metals and their compounds • Arsenic and its compounds • Biocides and plant protection products (All aggregation/disaggregation possible)

    9. Some group-specific technical questions Heavy metals: Background natural concentration Some debates around bio availability Pesticides: Often targeted to agriculture as the main user Complexity of pathways and bio degradation processes Do not neglect linear infrastructures (railways, motorways and roads) Organic micropollutants: Can be a group of substances (PCB, PAH, DIOXINs…)

    10. Some key elements to consider 1.Overall behaviour most often substance specific (persistency, bioaccumulation…), media specific (water, air…) and biota specific (biota, fish…) 2. Assessment of relevance through complex approach: Exposure + Effect = Risk (acute, chronic)  priority 3. Sales figures confidential or not enough substance specific, many substances intermediate in production (REACH?) 4. Relevance for EEA? subsidiarity with priority at RBD, nation and EU level link between source, their emission and resulting “in stream” load complex to establish

    11. Emission and source: clear concepts? ‘emission’ : the direct or indirect release of substances, […] from individual or diffuse sources into the air, water or land (IPPC Directive, 96/61/EC) a substance, a quantity, a source, the receiving media Diffuse source: a source of one or more pollutant(s) that cannot be geographically located on a map as a point but originating from a certain area. Point source: a source of one or more pollutant(s) that can be geographically located and represented as a point on a map. Where is the border? (cost and collection effort?) Special case of small point sources and linear sources (roads)

    12. The main (groups of) sources Diffuse sources S1 Atmospheric deposition S2 Indirect drainage of deep groundwater reservoirs S3 Agriculture S4 Traffic and non urban infrastructure S5 Accidental spills. S6 Release from materials. Point sources S7 Roofs and paved areas S8 Households S9 Industry S9.1 SME S9.2 E-PRTR industry S10 Waste deposit/landfill S11 Historically contaminated land S12 Natural sources Source : Data Collection Manual for the OECD/Eurostat Joint Questionnaire on Inland Waters, Tables 1 – 7, June 2004 Source : Source identification and emission controls, DGENV 2005

    13. Number of facilities by country emitting metals and compounds, reported in EPER (2001) ATBE DE DK ES FI FR GR IE IT LU NL NO PT SE UK Apportionment of Copper emission (direct to water) by country, reported in EPER (2001) Who emits what? EPER examples No unique industrial structure, no unique apportionment of emission

    14. Existing data sources

    15. Minimum requirements for emission of PS/PHS 1. A clearly identified substance or group of substances CAS code or similar + PS/PHS lists 2. A source or a group of sources WFD proposed list of sources 3. Temporal scale (quantity emitted per year) Annual load 4. Geographical scale (RBD, RB, sub-unit, WB) Exact location for big point sources, RB for all the other

    16. Let us keep it simple… From point to diffuse (E-PRTR goal of 90% coverage) International reference lists as far as possible: NACE, WFD list of sources, CAS Straightforward assumptions as far as possible: example EPER 2001 facilities in buffer 0-10km from the coastline (discharge in marine water)

    17. Conclusion and way forward • It is a challenging subject, many questions still to be solved • A need to address it at EU level, especially for common metrics and research problems • Many guidances, manuals, emission factors are available • (Inventory guidance of WG E, ETC/WTR EFDB) • It is possible to start with the existing data sources • Many tools exist and should be combined to avoid gaps : prefer rough estimate than ignoring • A need for reference lists and common language

    18. Thanks for your attention… B.FRIBOURG-BLANC, IOW Technical expert on emissions to water (b.fribourg-blanc@oieau.fr)