Common Drugs & Their Uses Chapter 18 BCC Pharmacy Technician
Objectives At the completion of the study the student will: • Describe how drugs are named • Describe how drugs are classified • List brand and generic names for commonly prescribed drugs • Identify at least one medical use for drugs that are commonly prescribed • Identify medication safety issues for commonly prescribed drugs
Drug Names & Classes • A drug is named by it’s chemicals and describes it’s structure/components • Marketed drugs under patent protection have one nonproprietary or generic name and one proprietary or brand name • The US Adopted Names Council (USAN) designates the official nonproprietary names for drugs
Classification Schemes • Various systems of classification • By disorder, body system affected, type of receptor acted on, type of action, etc. • Can be complicated… • P. 421 Classifications we have been using
Analgesics • Analgesic drugs create a state in which the pain from a painful medical condition is reduced or not felt.
Anesthetic Agents • Cause an absence of sensation or pain. • Local or general • Local anesthetics block pain conduction from peripheral nerves to the CNS • Dental work, birth pain, sunburn, hemorrhoids • Groups: Esters, Amides, Others • General anesthesia depresses the CNS to the level of unconsciousness. • Classified by route of administration • Stages I, II, III, IV
Anti-Infective • Treat disease produced by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and parasitic worms • Types of action • Damage bacterial cell wall, modify protein synthesis, modify energy metabolism, modify DNA synthesis • Classes • Antibiotics, Antivirals, Antifungals
Antineoplastics • Treatment of cancer • Drugs are targeted at cells with fast growth rates • Toxicity destroys cancerous and healthy cells • Classes • Antimetabolites • Alkylating Agents • Plant Alkaloids • Hormones • Anti-tumor Antibiotics • Radioactive Isotopes
Cardiovascular Agents • Treat disease and conditions of the heart. • Classes by Action • Classes by Condition: • Antianginals • Antiarrhythmics • Antihyperlipidemics • Antihypertensives • Thmobolytics • Vasopressors
Dermatologicals • Skin (Integumentary System) the body’s largest organ • Drugs used to treat conditions related to the skin • Trauma, edema, rashes, pigment, dry skin or scaling, cancers, growths
Electrolytic Agents • Maintaining the proper balance of body fluids is essential to health and body function. • Water is the primary element in the body • Electrolytes are water soluble substances that are contained in our body fluids as salts. • Common Electrolytes • Sodium • Potassium • Chloride • Bicarbonate
Gastrointestinal & Urinary Tract Agents • Treat disorders of the stomach or intestines • Classes: Enzymes, Antidiarrheals, Antiemetics, Antacid, Laxatives, Urinary Tract Agents
Hemtological Agents • Blood coagulation or clotting is a complex process in which the protein fibrinogen is transformed to an insoluble fiber called fibrin • Hematopoietics are drugs that treat various forms of anemias by stimulating or helping to stimulate blood cell growth. • Hemostatic drugs are used to treat or prevent excessive bleeding.
Hormones & Modifiers • Hormones are secretions of the endocrine system’s ductless glands. • The endocrine system regulates our weight, appetites and metabolism, raises or lowers our blood sugar levels, is responsible for normal growth and brain development, signals menstruation, and stimulates the production of sperm and ovaries in human sexual reproduction. • Endocrine glands release more than 20 major hormones directly into the bloodstream where they can be transported to cells that have built-in receptors to receive them.
Immunobiologic Agents & Vaccines • Used to produce passive or active immunity • Some Immunobiologic agents contain antibodies that attack and destroy antigens • Immunobiologic agents can be either vaccines, toxoids or immune globulins • There is a possibility that an immune globulin can contain an infectious agent—watch for signs of infection • Passive immunity from animals may be used for pathogens such as : diphtheria, rabies, botulism, and black widow spider venom • Human passive immunity is often used in the treatment of: measles, pertussis, mumps, tetanus, and hepatitis A and B • A toxoid is a toxin that is no longer toxic but is till able to stimulate the production of antibodies
Musculoskeletal Agents • Muscular System • Skeletal System • Conditions • Types: Anti-Gout, osteoporotic, antispasmodics, muscle relaxant
Neurological Agents • Nervous system- CNS & PNS • Nerve impulses are communicated through chemical transmissions • Disorders: Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, epilepsy, migraine headaches, multiple sclerosis and ADHD.
Ophthalmic & Otic Agents • Eye and ear treatments • Infection and inflammation • Ophthalmic agents treat conditions such as glaucoma, eye infection, eye pain, and inflammation (also used in eye examinations) • Otic agents treat conditions such as accumulation of ear wax and infections to the outer ear • Types of Ophthalmics: Antibiotics, Antiviral, Antihistamine, Cortico-steroids, NSAIDS, Mydriatics, Ocular lubricant, Antiglaucoma • Types of Otics: Anti-infective, Ear wax softener
Psychotropic Agents • Psychotropic drugs are drugs that affect behavior, psychiatric state and sleep. • Antipsychotic, antiseizure, sedatives, hypnotics, antianxiety, antidepressants, drugs for treating alcohol and drug dependency
Respiratory Agents • Balancing oxygen and carbon dioxide levels correctly is essential to health. • Use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide as waste. • Respiratory system is responsible for this exchange. • Common disorders: Asthma, allergy, emphysema, bronchitis, COPD and pneumoia. • Common drugs: antihistamines, decongestants, antitussives and bronchodilators
Review • END of Chapter Review • Match Terms • Multiple choice