Chapter 5— Improving Flexibility - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 5— Improving Flexibility

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  1. Chapter 5—Improving Flexibility • Flexibility is the range of motion at a joint or series of joints and is specific to each joint • Flexibility is influenced by the bony structure, the amount of tissue at the joint, the skin, and the elasticity of the muscles, tendons, and ligaments at the joint

  2. Flexibility and Wellness • Flexibility begins to decline by the mid-20s • Flexibility is influenced by age, gender, and physical activity • Flexibility is important for performing activities of daily life, maintaining good posture, preventing low back pain, and reducing joint deterioration

  3. Stretching • Stretching can be done during warm-up or cooldown, but is most productive during cooldown • Always warm up before performing stretching exercises • Muscles contain proprioceptors (sensory organs) that tell the brain when muscles are being stretched

  4. Stretching • The muscle spindle tells the brain the muscle is being stretched, and the Golgi tendon tells the brain to tell the muscles to relax after 6 seconds • Static stretching lasting 15 to 30 seconds is the preferred method of stretching because the message is sent from the Golgi tendon for the muscles to relax

  5. Types of Stretching • Ballistic (dynamic) stretching causes the Golgi tendon to send the message for the muscle to contract • The contraction associated with ballistic stretching can cause injury and is counterproductive to the goal of the exercise

  6. Static Stretching Guidelines • Warm up before stretching • Stretch to the point of discomfort, but not pain • Hold each stretch 15 to 30 seconds • Breathe rhythmically and continuously • Perform stretching exercises five to six times a week

  7. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) • PNF is the most effective stretching technique but takes more time, requires a partner, and has an increased risk of injury • PNF stretching combines passive movement with isometric contractions • Flexibility is usually measured with a goniometer

  8. Preventing Back and Neck Pain • Eighty to ninety percent of Americans have low back pain at some time in their lives • Sedentary lifestyle is a factor • 90% of back problems occur in the lumber region • Being overweight stresses the lower back

  9. Excess weight Poor posture Inactivity Weak abdominal muscles Fatigue Wearing high heels Stress Smoking Incorrect lifting Weak back and hamstring muscles Injury Disease Causes of Low Back Pain