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  1. Improving Performance How do athletes train for improved performance? What are the planning considerations for improving performance? What ethical issues are related to improving performance?

  2. How do athletes train for improved performance? Content Summary: • Strength training • Aerobic training • Anaerobic training (power and speed) • Flexibility training • Skill training

  3. Strength Training • Strength: is the ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert a force against a resistance. • Strength Training: is a general term that encompasses all types of exercise designed to improve strength and increase muscle size. • Strength program variables: - repetitions - repetitions maximum - set - resistance -rest - periodisation

  4. Strength Training Overload Techniques: • Pyramid Training: With each set performed the resistance is increased and the number of repetitions decreased. If the athlete was to perform 4 sets, by the fourth set they should have fatigued the particular muscle group e.g. Set 1 - 12 reps at 50 kg, Set 2 - 9 reps at 70 kg, Set 3 - 6 reps at 85kg, Set 4 - 3 reps at 100kg. • Reverse Pyramid Training: This is the opposite to pyramid training. The athlete starts with a heavy resistance and does a few reps. With each set the weight is decreased and the number of reps increased. • Blitzing: This technique involves working a muscle group with a variety of different exercises until fatigue occurs. A variety of exercises are used so that a training effect occurs through the full range of movement.

  5. Strength Training Overload Techniques Cont.: • Forced Repetitions: Forced repetitions are assistance with repetitions to perform additional reps of an exercise when muscles can no longer complete the movement on their own. • Super Sets: This technique involves completing 2 sets of different exercises with no rest between sets e.g. dumbbell kickback immediately followed by dips. The same muscle can be worked, as in the example (triceps), or alternatively agonist and antagonist muscle groups can be trained using this method. • Negative Repetitions: This involves working with a spotter/partner. This technique involves the athlete performing an exercise to fatigue. When fatigue is reached the spotter assists the athlete to raise the bar, leaving them to lower the weight in a controlled manner.

  6. Strength Training Resistance Training • Read through the content on page 49 and 50 of your work booklets. • Complete the activities on elastic resistance training and hydraulic resistance equipment.

  7. Strength Training Weight Training A barbell is a longer bar with plate weights requiring two hands, while dumbbells are short bars with weights attached and are used in either hand. A concentric contraction occurs when a muscle contracts and shortens, thereby causing movement. An eccentric contraction occurs when a muscle lengthens under a load. Most often this happens when a muscle is controlling a movement of a load as it moves with the aid of gravity. Hypertrophy refers to the increase in size in any body part, but for the purposes of training is most commonly used to describe the increase in the size of muscles due to training.

  8. Strength Training • Lateral Shoulder Raise: Stand with your feet approximately shoulder width apart and grasp a dumbbell in each hand allowing the dumbbells to hang down at your sides with your palm facing in toward your body. Simultaneously raise the dumbbells by bringing the backs of your hands to the ceiling, keeping your arms as straight as possible throughout the movement. Bring your arms to a point that is parallel to the floor, hold for a one-count and return to the start position and repeat for the desired repetitions. The major muscle group trained is the deltoids. • Shoulder Shrug: The athlete stands with a barbell at waist height, feet shoulder width apart using an overhand grip. Without bending the elbows the athlete raises the shoulders and attempts to touch the ears with the shoulders and then slowly return to the starting position. The movement should be a slow rolling one. The major muscle group trained is the trapezius.

  9. Strength Training • Dumbbell Curl: Lie back on an incline bench and hold a dumbbell in each hand. Let your arms hang straight down on both sides with your palms facing in toward each other. Slowly curl the weight in your left hand as if to touch it to your left shoulder. While you are curling the dumbbell, slowly turn your wrist outward so that your thumb points away from your body Squeeze your bicep at the top of the movement for a one-count and then slowly return to the start position and repeat with your right arm. The major muscle group trained is the bicep. • Barbell Bench Press: The athlete lies on their back on a bench with feet flat on the floor. The bar is gripped slightly more than shoulder width apart with the fingers pointing towards the feet. The athlete lowers the bar until it touches the chest, approximately on the nipple line. The barbell is then pressed back to the starting position. A spotter should be used and the bar should not be bounced on the chest. The major muscle group trained are the pectorals.

  10. Strength Training • Lat Pull Down: This exercise is performed on a lat pull down machine. The athlete sits on the seat with their thighs under the pads provided. The athlete faces the machine. The athlete grips the bar using an overhand grip, wider than shoulder width. The bar is then pulled down until it touches the back of the neck. In a controlled manner the bar is then returned to its starting position. The major muscle group trained is the latissimusdorsi. • Leg Curl: The athlete lies face down on a hamstring curl machine with the heels under the pads provided. The handles provided can be gripped by the athlete. The knee is flexed until the pads touch the gluteals and then lowered again. The major muscle group trained are the hamstrings. • Leg Extension: The athlete sits on the leg extension machine with the front of the ankles behind the pads provided. The handles provided can be gripped by the athlete. The knee is straightened until completely straight and then returned to the starting position. The upper body should remain still. The major muscle group trained are the quadriceps.

  11. Strength Training • Calf Raise: The athlete stands with the barbell resting on their shoulders, feet shoulder width apart and using an overhand grip. The athlete rises up onto the toes as far as possible and then returns to the starting position. The legs and back are kept straight throughout the movement. The major muscle group trained are the calves, the gastrocnemius and soleus. • Upright Rowing: Stand with straight back, shoulders back, feet shoulder width apart, barbell resting against front of hips with overhand grip, hands together in the middle of the bar. Keeping elbows high, raise the bar to under the chin and return. • Abdominals – crunches, hover. Quadriceps – squats, lunges. Back – back flys, back extensions. Chest – flys, pullovers.

  12. Isometric Training Advantages: • Equipment needs are minimal • It is helpful to overcome weaker points in the muscle. • It takes little time, is simple to learn and easy to perform. • It is valuable in rehabilitating an injury, such as a muscle tear. • Much of this training can be performed in a variety of places.

  13. Isometric training Disadvantages: • It does not increase strength through the full range of motion of the joint unless applies at all the respective angles. • It causes a rise in blood pressure. • Speed is reduced through strengthening in a static position. • Other methods, such as isotonic testing, must be used to measure progress. • It does not produce muscular endurance. • Most benefits occur early in training.

  14. Strength Training for Specific Purposes General guidelines for a strength training program for endurance athletes: • Number of repetitions? 15 - 25 • The load of resistance? Light to medium. • Number of sets? 3-6 • Amount of rest/recovery between sets? Relatively short rest periods e.g. 10 seconds to 1 minute • Sessions per week? 3-5 • Exercise speed? Quick

  15. Strength Training for Specific Purposes General guidelines for an absolute strength training program for a competitive weight lifter: • Number of repetitions? 3-6 • The load of resistance? Very heavy • Number of sets? 5-6 • Amount of rest/recovery between sets? Lengthy e.g. 4 minutes • Sessions per week? 3-5 • Exercise speed? Slow

  16. Strength Training for Specific Purposes Activity: Page 55 Example of an endurance strength training program that can be done over a 4 week period.

  17. Strength Training for Specific Purposes • Warm up and cool down - Warm up and cool down thoroughly to reduce the risk of injury and return muscles to pre training lengths. • Clothing - Wear appropriate clothes and protective equipment. For example, gloves reduce the risk of blisters. Clothing should be loose enough to allow movement and heat loss. • Hygiene - For hygiene reasons always use a towel in the gym. • Controlled movement - body parts should be trained in isolation without excessive body movements (unless experienced or training for a specific purpose). Avoid excessive swinging of weights by choosing the appropriate loads. • Posture - maintain correct body posture to avoid injury and promote correct lifting technique.

  18. Strength Training for Specific Purposes • Back safety - Keep your back straight when lifting and maintain correct technique. Avoid bending and twisting movements. • Technique – correct lifting technique should always take emphasis over excessive loads. • Breathing - Don’t hold your breath while lifting weights. Generally speaking, breathe out during the work phase of each exercise. • Equipment - Check all equipment before you use it. Don’t use a piece of equipment if it seems faulty. Inform staff of any faulty equipment. • Spotters - Make sure you have someone nearby to ‘spot’ for you (take the weight from you if needed) when you use heavier weights.

  19. Strength Training for Specific Purposes • Loads – choose loads that are appropriate to your age, strength and training needs. Overloads should be set at achievable levels without causing poor technique. • Repetitions – choose repetitions depending upon the aims of the training program. • Rest – factor in appropriate rest periods to avoid overtraining and injury. • Age appropriate – training programs must be developed considering the training experience and age of the athlete. Special consideration should be given to athletes that are growing quickly during adolescence. High loads and low repetitions should be avoided by young athletes or people that are inexperienced.

  20. Aerobic Training How training adaptations that occur due to aerobic training can be measured and monitored Increase in oxygen uptake and haemoglobin levels • Method of measurement and monitoring: - monitored by finger prick blood testing during exercise, VO2 max tests. • Link to performance: - link to performance is greater aerobic endurance Improvements to storage of ATP, glycogen • Method of measurement and monitoring: - monitored by treadmill testing • Link to performance : - link to performance is greater energy stores for extended exercise Increased muscle size, elasticity, strength and power • Method of measurement and monitoring: - tape measures, sit and reach tests, standing broad jump • Link to performance : - link to performance is greater range of movement, improved strength and power throughout the execution of skills.

  21. Aerobic Training Continuous/Uniform Training Provides a foundation for most other methods of training including anaerobic training. This is because it is sustained, low intensity, continuous training which provides the groundwork for other forms of fitness. Generally, continuous training is used to improve cardiorespiratory endurance, local muscular endurance and overall aerobic capacity. Continuous training requires working at a level of intensity that equivalent to 50-60% of your maximal heart rate and sustained for 60 minutes. As intensity increases, the duration should be decreased e.g. 70-80% for 35-45 minutes in duration. Continuous training develops both glycogen and fat utilisation for the provision of energy. It improves cardiorespiratory efficiency, contributing to a significant reduction of heart rate both during work and rest.

  22. Aerobic Training Fartlek Training Like continuous training, Fartlek is also a beneficial form of aerobic training and can provide substantial cardiorespiratory benefits. Pace and terrain variations employed with Fartlek training mean that some thought and planning needs to be given to enable full benefits from this training technique.

  23. Aerobic Training There are many different types of Fartlek Training: Watson Fartlek Suitable for 10k, 5k, 3k and cross country. 10 minutes warm up Stride hard for 4 minutes with 1 minute jog recovery - repeat 8 times 10 minute cool down Saltin Fartlek Suitable for 1500m, 5k and 3k. 10 minutes warm up Repeat 6 times - Stride hard for 3 minutes with 1 minute jog run recovery 10 minute cool down Astrand Fartlek Suitable for 800m. 10 minutes warm up Repeat 3 times - Maximum effort for 75 seconds, 150 seconds jog/run, maximum effort for 60 seconds, 120 seconds jog run 10 minute cool down

  24. Aerobic Training Gerschler Fartlek Suitable for getting fit quickly when combined with steady running. 10 minutes warm up Repeat 3 times - Stride hard for 30 seconds, jog 90 seconds. Repeat with 15 second decreases in recovery jog e.g. 30-90, 30-75, 30-60, 30-45, 30-30, 30-15 and 30-15-30 10 minute cool down Hill Fartlek 10 minutes warm up Select a 2 mile hilly course. Repeat 3 times - Run hard up all hills twice before moving to the next hill, jog runbetween hills 10 minute cool down Whistle Fartlek The coach, using a whistle, controls the session over a 800 metre circumference grass area. 10 minutes warm up When the whistle is blown the athletes run hard until the whistle is blown again. Pyramid session of 4 minutes, 3 minutes, 2 minutes, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 3 minutes, 4 minutes with a 60 second jog run recovery between each run 10 minute cool down Fartlek for games players A fartlek session for games players should include sprinting, running, jogging and walking with variations in direction of movement to fit in with the demands of their sport. This should include controlling an object (e.g. football) or carry any implement (e.g. hockey stick, rugby ball) used in the sport.

  25. Aerobic Training Long Interval Long Interval training uses repetitions of high speed intensity work followed by periods of recovery to develop aerobic fitness. Long Interval training is a preferred form of training by distance runners, triathletes and footballers in preparation for competition. Work phases usually range from 2 - 5minutes and these are followed by rest phases that may only be 30 seconds long. Variety can be achieved by changing the work – rest ratio. Long Interval training can be organised a number of ways. Specify a set distance e.g. 400m and run at a predetermined speed over the distance, reaching the finish within the allocated time period. This then followed by a walk recovery and repetition of the run until the required number of intervals has been completed.

  26. Anaerobic Training Developing Power Through Resistance/Weight Training The anaerobic system is the dominant pathway for energy supply during explosive activities such as weight lifting, throwing and sprinting. An athlete who trains for anaerobic events using exercises and practices that simulate what is required in the game or activity will further develop the capacity of the fast-twitch fibres. Resistance training builds power through recruiting and enlarging muscle fibres. Power is the rate at which force is produced per unit of time.

  27. Anaerobic Training Power can also be expressed as: Force x Distance divided by time Power can be increased by manipulating any one of the above three variables (force, distance and time). For example, power is increased by decreasing the length of time a movement is performed while keeping force (resistance) and distance constant. This results in a more explosive movement. Therefore to increase power using resistance training, movements need to be performed quickly, causing preferential recruitment of fast-twitch fibres.

  28. Anaerobic Training Plyometrics Refers to a special range of exercises in which a muscle is lengthened using an eccentric contraction and this is rapidly followed by a shortening or concentric contraction. Plyometrics has considerable value in power development because it has been demonstrated that if a muscle is stretched (preloaded) before it is shortened, it will contract more forcefully. The elastic recoil of muscle fibres results in a more powerful movement. A muscle has the potential to develop maximum tension if it is stretched rapidly. The faster it is forced to stretch, the greater will be the tension that can be applied.

  29. Anaerobic Training Click on the link below to view a range of plyometric exercises that assist athletes in developing explosive power movements for their chosen sport.

  30. Anaerobic Training Short Interval Training This is similar to Long Interval Training except that the intervals are brief and recovery is longer to enable restoration of ATP stores. The method involves alternating short burst of intense activity with periods of rest or recovery. Initially, low intensity intervals supported by adequate rest intervals should be implemented. As fitness gains are made, progressive adjustments to variables (rest, intensity, distance, repetitions) can be made to ensure a program addresses the overload principle.

  31. Anaerobic Training Short Interval Training improves the ability of the muscles to tolerate lactic acid build-up. An ATP-PC target interval program might require the athlete to work at 95% intensity for 15 seconds and follow this with a one minute recovery. This cycle will allow for almost complete resynthesis of creatine phosphate stores. 15-20 repetitions would then be required to complete the set. Work of very high intensity and of short duration engages the anaerobic system

  32. Anaerobic Training Click on the link below to see an example of Short Interval Training in practice.

  33. Flexibility Training Static Stretching for the arms: Dynamic Stretching for the legs:,7120,s6-241-287--13442-0,00.html Ballistic Stretching: PNF Stretching for the legs:

  34. Flexibility Training Answers for Safe and Potentially Harmful Flexibility Exercises • Excessive twisting - These movements involve repetitive twisting type movements and generally place strain/stress on joints and can loosen joint capsules e.g. standing twist generally performed with a barbell e.g. repetitive standing trunk twists. • Hyperextension - Exercises such as neck and back hyperextensions can pinch nerves, affect circulation and compress discs e.g. back arches. • Hyperflexion - Exercises such as neck and back hyperflexion can pinch nerves, affect circulation and compress discs e.g. full squats. • Joint impingement - Exercises such as upright rowing where the elbows are raised above the shoulders can impinge joints. They can cause muscle strain, compression joints, inflame tissues and impinge nerves e.g. lateral arm raises above shoulder height. • Rotational movements - These movements are not recommended as they may lead to joint degeneration e.g. neck rotation and neck circling.

  35. Skill Training Drills Practice Examples of drills practice in various sports: Complete the activities on ‘Modified and Small-sided Games’ and ‘Games for Specific Outcomes’ on page 70 of your work booklets.

  36. What are the planning considerations for improving performance? Initial Planning Considerations Performance and Fitness Needs: Performance and fitness elements need to be considered in terms of both individual and team requirements.

  37. Initial Planning Considerations Answers for the activity on page 72 of your Work Booklet: Professional Sporting Team • Fitness issues: Establish which players have chronic injuries. Fitness tests will assess the fitness of players. Establish the gap between current fitness and fitness goals for the start of the competition. Review historical fitness levels of players from previous competitions. • Performance issues: Review performance of players in previous years, particularly last year. Skills tests to establish individual and team plans for skill development. Review group dynamics and leadership issues. Now complete the second half of the activity through discussion in class

  38. Initial Planning Considerations Schedule of Events/Competitions • Planning must address the competition period to ensure players are fit and game strategies are in place. • Players need to peak regularly (on a weekly basis) in game competitions with an elevated preparedness for finals rounds. • Track athletes and swimmers have big event occurring periodically throughout the year. • Training programs must aim to address training volume to ensure peaking occurs at competition time. Climate and Season • Initial planning needs to consider seasonal variations together with climatic influences. • Athletes should have correct attire for training and competition.

  39. Initial Planning Considerations Complete the activities on page 74 of your work booklets using the information below: Altitude Training The higher you go 1500m above sea level the harder it is to exercise. This is because hypoxia occurs (less oxygen is available to the body). At altitude there is a decrease in atmospheric pressure. Anaerobic events of short duration are not affected. However, events that predominantly use the aerobic system can be greatly affected. In fact the higher you go above 1500m the greater the effect on performance. Altitude causes the athlete to breathe harder and deeper. At maximal effort VO2 decreases as does cardiac output. Acclimatisation Acclimatisation occurs as a result of training at altitude or similar climatic conditions to which an athlete will compete. The body’s responses to training at altitude include an increase in the number of red blood cells and haemoglobin. Ventilation rates also increase and begin to stabilize after approximately one week. There is also an increase in cardiac output. The main problems with altitude training is the difficulty to train intensely, altitude sickness, overtraining may occur and loss of muscle mass.

  40. Planning a Training Year Phases of Competition Pre-season Commonly called the preparation phase of competition or season. During pre season preparation the coach and the athlete are mainly concerned with improving fitness and the skill level for the competitive season ahead. Examples include sand hill running, cycling, weight training. In-Season Preparation Commonly called the competition phase of the season. During in season preparation the coach and the athlete are concerned with maintaining fitness levels, improving and refining skills, game tactics and strategies. The coach tries to have players at the top of their form for a major game or performance e.g. grand final. Examples include set plays (for example, short corners in hockey, corners in soccer), goal shooting, tactical positioning, set moves (for example, wrap around in touch football, decoy runners in rugby league), penalty shots.

  41. Planning a Training Year Off-Season Preparation Commonly called the off season or transition phase. During post season preparation the coach and athlete are mainly concerned with injury treatment and management, rest and recovery. Complete the activities on page 76 of your Work Booklets

  42. Planning a Training Year A plan for development and maintenance of strength, endurance and speed:

  43. Planning a Training Year Example of a macrocycle:

  44. Planning a Training Year An example of a microcycle Microcycle continues onto the next slide

  45. Planning a Training Year Peaking Indicators that an athlete’s performance is peaking: • A state of excellent health. • Heightened rate of recovery from training. • Body systems tuned for optimal performance. • Adjustments to technical and tactical preparation completed. • Superior neuromuscular coordination. Tapering • Tapering is the reduction of training workloads prior to an event. Why is tapering beneficial to performance? • Training programs utilise the overload principle to provide a stress on an athlete’s body which in turn recovers and improves to meet the new demands of training. Tapering is beneficial to performance because it allows the athlete to fully recover from this training stress and be fresh for competition.

  46. Planning a Training Year Sport Specific Subphases Subphases provide an opportunity to target specific areas that require further development. E.g. One athlete in a group may need additional work on technique while another may benefit more from improved fitness. There are many areas that could be the subject of specific examination and additional work, including testing, monitoring, evaluation, specialisation, loading, unloading, volume, intensity or whatever is required depending on individual’s needs.

  47. Elements to be considered when designing a training session Use the information below to complete the activity on page 79 Session Overview: This is an explanation of what you will be doing in the training session – what you are expected to achieve by the end. Warm-up and Cool Down: General physical activity followed by specific stretching to prepare the body for the rest of the training session. Skill Instruction and Practice: This is where new skills are taught and athletes are given the time to practice and improve their technique. Conditioning:Athletes are given activities that aim to improve their strength and fitness gains e.g. Aerobic activity, resistance training, speed work. Evaluation: Both athletes and coaches analyse the effectiveness of the training session. They look at aspects such as the training session having a positive or negative effect on performance outcomes.

  48. Elements to be considered when designing a training session Health and Safety Considerations Copy the following information into page 80 of your work booklets Warm ups and cool downs: Warm up s are essential to prepare the athlete physically and mentally for the training session and minimise the chance of injury. Cool downs dissipates lactic acid build up and returns muscle length following continual contractions. Climatic conditions: Avoid extremes of temperature. Be aware that young athletes have less ability to deal with temperature extremes. Apparel: Appropriate clothing improves performance and enjoyment and reduces the incidence of injury.

  49. Elements to be considered when designing a training session Equipment: Ensure equipment is regularly inspected and maintained to ensure safe operation. Protective equipment: Mandate the supply and use of protective equipment as necessary. Hydration: Remember that thirst is a poor measure of hydration. Ensure that athletes have access to water and are encouraged to hydrate regularly. Playing surface : Inspect playing surfaces prior to training and ensure that players are protected from uneven surfaces and foreign bodies that may cause injury.