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Renewable Energy for conviviality: some experiences from Thailand . Chris Greacen Palang Thai Eco-Village Training 20 December 2007 Mu Ban Dek, Kanchanburi. Palang Thai พลังไท. พลัง (palang): n 1. Power. 2. Empowerment. ไท (thai): adj. 1. Independence. 2. Self-reliance.

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Renewable Energy for conviviality: some experiences from Thailand


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renewable energy for conviviality some experiences from thailand

Renewable Energy for conviviality: some experiences from Thailand

Chris Greacen

Palang Thai

Eco-Village Training

20 December 2007

Mu Ban Dek, Kanchanburi

palang thai
Palang Thaiพลังไท

พลัง (palang): n 1. Power. 2. Empowerment.

ไท (thai): adj. 1. Independence. 2. Self-reliance

  • We teach hands-on energy technology
  • We draft policies
  • We critique wasteful & dangerous mega-projects
conviviality
Conviviality

Con: “with”

Vivre: “life”

conviviality1
Conviviality

Con: “with”

Vivre: “life”

As individuals, as communities, as a species… how can we live in harmony with nature/divine?

conviviality2
Conviviality

Con: “with”

Vivre: “life”

As individuals, as communities, as a species… how can we live in harmony with nature/divine?

"Nature has enough for our need, but not enough for our greed." -- Ghandi

conviviality3
Conviviality

Con: “with”

Vivre: “life”

As individuals, as communities, as a species… how can we live in harmony with nature/divine?

"Nature has enough for our need, but not enough for our greed.“

Renewable energy is not enough… we need to address consumption

what is renewable energy
What is Renewable Energy?
  • Renewable: harnesses energy flows in nature in ways that do not deplete those flows.
  • Fossil: use it, and it is gone…
global warming

Ice melting areas

Global Warming

Albedo Effect

กรีนแลนด์ บริเวณขั้วโลกเหนือ

Source of picture: bbc.co.uk

natural gas
Natural gas
  • Used to make 71% of Thailand’s electricity (among highest in world)
  • Cleaner than other fossil fuels (especially SOx) but still big CO2 emissions
  • Limited domestic supply.
  • Human rights issues in pipeline from Burma (Yadana)

LNG terminal

natural gas1
Natural gas
  • Severe price volatility – linked to crude oil price.
  • Now around $0.05 to $0.07 / kWh
slide12
Coal
  • Used to make 14% of Thailand’s electricity
  • History of respiratory illnesses from coal smoke – Mae Mot, Lampang
  • Acid rain
  • Worst fuel for global warming
  • Limited domestic supply
  • Cheaper (now) than natural gas ($0.04 to $0.06/kWh)
  • Strong environmental opposition
big hydro
Big hydro
  • Used to make 6% of Thailand’s electricity
  • Consensus: no more big dams will be built in Thailand
    • Limited sites left in Thailand
    • Strong environmental opposition
  • Environmental issues
    • Inundation
    • Fish killed
    • Global warming
    • Changes in temperature / sediment loading / flow regime
  • Can be cheap
    • If reasonably close to load centers
nuclear
Nuclear
  • In 2007 PDP starting year 2020
  • Cost uncertain
    • $0.02 to $0.12/kWh
  • Environment & security issues
    • Generates materials that can be used to make weapons
    • Thailand has spotty nuclear safety record already
    • Waste dangerous for thousands of years.
renewables worldwide
Renewables worldwide
  • About 20% of all power sector investment is now in renewables
solar
Solar

TESCO Lotus, Rama I,

460 kWp, Cost: 75,165,000 baht

13.7 km

13.7 km

0.037% of Thailand area  100% peak load (22,586 MW)

World-wide

2006: 6,000 MWp cumulative

2007: >9,000 MWp cumulative

  • The fastest growing energy technology in the world is grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV), growing by 60% per year from 2000–2004.
slide19

Solar

3 kW = 660,000 baht

  • Thai population: 65,069,000
  • Person per household: 5
  • Households: 13,014,000
  • System size: 3 kW
  • If 58% of households  100% of peak load
  • VSPP subsidy: 8 baht / kWh
thai solar home systems
Thai solar home systems

203,000 solar home systems

Sustainability challenge

ruggedized solar electric systems built by karen medics in 3 5 day hands on trainings
Ruggedized solar electric systems built by Karen medics in 3-5 day hands-on trainings
  • 8 trainings (2003-2007) www.bget.org
  • >100 medics trained
  • 37 clinics
solar for computer training centers in seven karen refugee camps
Solar for computer training centers in seven Karen refugee camps
  • 1 kW PV hybrid with diesel generator
  • Each powers 12 computers
slide24
Wind
  • Hundreds of watts to 5 MW per turbine
  • Now over 18,000 MW in Germany
  • Denmark gets >17% electricity from wind
  • At windy site, US 5 cents/kWh (1.65 baht/kWh)
  • In Thailand: 6 baht/kWh (?)
  • VSPP subsidy: 2.5 baht/kWh (3.5?)
  • 1 MW = 35,000,000 baht

Thai wind potential: 1600 MW (?)

slide25

28,530 MW = Thailand’s peak load in 2007

  • Second fastest growing power source world wide. Grew by 28% per year, led by Germany, with over 18 GW installed as of 2005.
wind energy human scale
Wind energy – human scale

http://natee2007.thaiza.com

8,200 baht

17.7 baht/kWh

Thai wind pioneers build wind power themselves.

slide29

5 m

1 m

4.5 m

6 m

slide31

2 m

0.3 m

rice husk fired power plant
Rice husk fired power plant
  • 9.8 MW
  • Roi Et province
  • VSPP: Subsidy 0.3 baht/kWh
korat waste to energy biogas
Korat Waste to Energy - biogas
  • Uses waste water from cassava to make methane
  • Produces gas for all factory heat (30 MW thermal) + 3 MW of electricity
  • 3 x 1 MW gas generators
  • VSPP: Subsidy 0.3 baht/kWh
biogas from pig farms

Reduces air and water pollution

Produces fertilizer

Produces electricity

8 x 70 kW generator

Ratchaburi

Subsidy: 0.3 baht/kwh

Biogas from Pig Farms
rice husk gasifier
Rice husk gasifier

Rice mill in Nakorn Sawan

400 kW

micro hydro technology
Micro-hydro technology

Source: Inversin, A. R. (1986). Micro-Hydropower Sourcebook.

micro hydro technology1
Micro-hydro technology

Centrifugal

pump

Pelton

Turgo

Crossflow

Kaplan

slide41

Thai Potential:

1000s of projects - 700 MW (?)

Mae Kam Pong, Chiang Mai

DEDE + community

40 kW

4 million baht cost

Sell electricity to PEA – 400,000 baht/year

VSPP subsidy: 0.8 baht/kWh

slide42

Mae Kam Pong, Chiang Mai

2 @ 20 kW

Weir: 2 meters high, 15 meter wide

Head: 55 meters

Households: 190

Cost: 3.99 million baht

Constructed in year: 2526 (1983)

slide43

Thai Potential:

10,000s of projects – 10s MW (?)

Huai Krating, Tak

Power: 3 kW

Head: 35 meter

Flow: 20 liters/second

Cost: <200,000 baht

(turbine - 24,500 baht)

Constructed: 2548 (2005)

slide44

Kre Khi village, Tak Province

1 kW for school, clinic, church

Cost: <150,000

(turbine 10,000)

Head: 10 meters

Flow: 15 lit/sec

slide45

Mae Klang Luang, Chaing Mai

200 watts

5,000 baht (turbine: 4,000 baht)

Installed: 2550 (2007)

Head: 1.7 meters

hydraulic ram pump
Hydraulic ram pump

www.agr.gc.ca

biogas for cooking
Biogas for cooking

www.bget.org

thank you

Thank you

For more information, please contact chris@palangthai.org

This presentation available at:

www.palangthai.org/docs

so they always overestimate actual demand building power plants that aren t needed
… so they always overestimate actual demand, building power plants that aren’t needed…
power development plan
Power Development Plan

(Planned installed capacity = peak demand + 15% reserve)

fuel mix in power generation
Fuel mix in power generation

GWh

Import

Nuke

RE

Gas

Coal

Lignite

Hydro

saving electricity is cheaper than generating it
Saving electricity is cheaper than generating it

Demand Side Management (saving electricity)

1.5

Actual 10-year DSM average cost!!!

Source: The World Bank (1993)