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MAN AND ENERGY A case for Sustainable Living through Renewable and Green Energy. Ali Keyhani Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH-43210 k ABSTRACT.

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man and energy a case for sustainable living through renewable and green energy

MAN AND ENERGYA case for Sustainable Living through Renewable and Green Energy

Ali Keyhani

Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The Ohio State University

Columbus, OH-43210

  • Energy technologies have a central role in social and economic developments at all scales.
  • Energy is closely linked environmental pollution, degradation to economic development and quality of living.
  • We are dependent on nonrenewable fossil fuels that have been and will continue to be major cause of pollution and climatic change.
  • Petroleum supplies are dwindling.
  • Thus finding sustainable alternatives is an urgent concern.



  • To develop technology for integration, control of renewable energy sources, control of energy consumption and load management.
  • To empower energy user for a sustainable living.
  • Developing Distributed Generation system where energy user is also an energy producer.

  • In this talk, an overview of humankind energy use is presented.
  • Man and Energy --- the past.
  • Man and Energy--- the last hundred years.
  • Man and Energy---the future
  • Then the talk, focuses on some of the challenges and efforts needed to harness renewable energy sources for a sustainable human society.

man history
  • Early human forays into the Middle East from Africa around 100,000 to 150,000 years ago.
  • These early settlers were replaced by Neanderthals in the region about 80,000 years ago.
  • Possible triggers for migration : increase in population, a change in diet, the acquisition of language and climatic change.
  • Around 40,000 years ago, grip of Ice Age loosened, temperature became warmer, humans moved into Central Asia and multiplied quickly.

man history6
  • 35,000 years ago small groups of people left Central Asia for Europe. Cold temperatures kept them there.
  • They became paler and shorter than their African ancestors.
  • 15000 years ago, one small clan of arctic dwellers followed the reindeer herd over the Bering Strait land bridge to North America.

man history7
  • Some time in the past, random mutations, which can happen naturally and be harmless, marked a new begging.
  • Climate changes may have coaxed humans out of Africa and encouraged Neanderthals already living there to spread outward into other parts of Asia and southeastern Europe.
  • But a climatic reversal also could have turned the tables.

man history8
  • Europe and Northern Asia were experiencing a cool era at that time, and even hearty Neanderthals probably would have found the warmer climates to the south enticing.
  • “They pushed back probably from the Caucasus region to the north, and drove the humans then living there into retreat” Bar-Yosefsuggested.
  • Only a second advance by humans thousands of years later—one that was more permanently successful—ultimately settled the question of which species would prevail.

climate factor
  • A major mystery in the story of human evolution is how climate affected the environment where creatures that regularly walked upright—the hominids—first emerged.
  • One widely accepted theory holds that after the ape and hominid lineages split, the earliest human ancestors were forced into the expanding tropical grasslands of the African savanna after the continent's thick forests dwindled as a result of climate change.

sustainable energy technology
Sustainable Energy Technology

Primary Energy: All we use comes from the sun.

Solar radiation

Key to Sustainability:

Utilize primary energy resource at the same rate at which it is naturally replenished on earth and without externalities.

Source : BMW Group,2000

early history and use of energy


  • An area geographically located between the Tigris

and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to Iraq,

Khuzestan region of southwestern Iran.

  • 8000 B.C people of the area used wood

and wood charcoal and oil.

  • Include Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian,

Assyrian Empires.

  • Known as “Cradle of civilization”

early history and use of energy12


  • The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC. About half a century later, the Babylonians and Assyrians both became provinces of the Persian Empire which gave way to the Achaemenid Empire.
    • Seal of Cyrus, the Great.(550 B.C.)

early history and use of energy13


  • 5000 B.C, Egyptians used wood and wood charcoal for cooking and heat.

Inscriber Egypt. (3000BC.)

early history and use of energy14


  • 750 B.C TO 146 B.C, considered to the seminal culture which provided the foundation for western civilization.
  • Greek culture had a power influence on Roman Empire.

The Parthenon is the most memorable symbol of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks.

early history and use of energy15


  • The Indus Valley Civilization (3000–1500 B.C) flourished in the Indus river valleys primarily in Sindh province of Pakistan, extending westward into Balochistan province, and in north western and western India.
  • According to archaeologists, wheel was

probably invented in around 8,000 B.C.

in India.

Taj mahal

Chariots belonging to the Aryans of ancient India

early history and use of energy16


  • China is one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations (extends 5000 years).
  • Deep Drilling of Gas: Technique

developed in 100 B.C. The devices that

were used were remarkably large and

well crafted for time.

  • The Chinese’s building process was

dramatically sped up because of this useful invention. The wheelbarrow emerged in first century BC.

chronology of oil discovery and usage
  • 450 B.C :Herodotus described oil pits near Babylon.
  • 325 B.C : Alexander the great used flaming torches of petroleum products to scare his enemies.
  • 1264 : Marco Polo recorded visiting the Persian city of Baku, on the shores of the Caspian Sea in modern Azerbaijan, he saw oil being collected from seeps for use in medicine and lighting.
  • 1814 : One of the first wells that produced oil which was marketed was drilled near Marietta, Ohio

chronology of oil discovery and usage18
  • 1895 : Invention of combustion engine.
  • 1896 : Henry Ford's first motorcar.
  • 1908 - Oil discovered in Persia, Anglo Persian Oil company formed (Later became British Petroleum, BP).
  • 1938 - Oil discovered in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
  • 1939-1945 - World War II - control of oil supply from Baku and Middle East played a huge role in the events of the war and the ultimate victory of the allies. Cutting off the oil supply considerably weakened Japan in the latter part of the war.

chronology of oil discovery and usage19
  • 1951 : Anglo Iranian Oil Company nationalized.
  • 1954 : Anglo-Persian Oil Company renamed British Petroleum.
  • 1979-1981 : Oil prices rise from $13.00 to $34.00.
  • 1986 : Chernobyl - Nuclear power plant accident.
  • 2003 : (Aug 14) - Major electrical failure causes blackout in New York State and Ontario.

chronology of oil discovery and usage20
  • 2004 (July) - US oil imports at a record 11.3MMBO per day.
  • 2004 - (Nov) George Bush re-elected President in USA.
  • 2004 (Oct 25) - Oil at a record price of $55.67 US per barrel on concerns over high demand and possible supply disruptions in the Middle East and damage on the Gulf Coast from Hurricane Ivan .
  • 2008 (Jan 2) - WTI oil price briefly touches US$100 per barrel for the first time driven by supply concerns and the weak US dollar.

is an oil economy sustainable
Is an Oil economy Sustainable?
  • In the long run, an economy that utilizes petroleum as a primary energy source is not sustainable, because the amount of oil in the Earth’s crust is finite.
  • The history of energy use is largely one of substitution. In the 19th century, the world’s primary energy source was wood.
  • Around 1890, wood was replaced by coal. Coal remained the world’s largest source of energy until the 1960s when it was replaced by oil.
  • No one can predict the future, but the world contains enough petroleum resources to last at least until the year 2100.


The above graph shows the Hubbert predictions in 1956 which shows the estimates of the oil production in the future which is compared with the actual production.


The world average oil production per capita from 1920 to 1999. The curve represents the ratio of world oil production (O) and world population (Pop): i.e. ô = O/(Pop) in barrels per capita per year (i.e. b/c/year). Note well that ô grew exponentially from 1920 to 1973. Next, growth was negligible from 1973 to the all-time peak in 1979. Finally, from its peak in 1979 to 1999, ô decreased at an average rate of 1.20% per year. (i.e. from 5.50 b/c in 1979 to 4.32 b/c in 1999)


World average energy production per capita (ê) grew significantly from 1920 to its all-time peak in 1979.

  • Then from its peak in 1979 to 1999, ê declined at an average rate of 0.33 %/year.

introduction to current energy use
Introduction to Current Energy Use

World-Wide Total Energy Sources

86.5% combustion

  • 21.1% Natural Gas
  • 32.6% oil
  • 22.2% coal
  • 10.6% traditional biomass
  • 5.7% nuclear
  • 5.5% hydro-electric
  • 2.3% renewables (other than traditional biomass)

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

introduction to current energy use26
Introduction to current energy use

Trends in World Total Energy Use (last 30 years)

BP website

introduction to current energy use27
Introduction to current Energy Use

Regional Distribution of Total Energy Use

Regional Consumption Pattern 2006













North America

S. & Cent. America

Europe & Eurasia

Middle East


Asia Pacific

Oil remains the leading energy source in all regions except Asia Pacific and Europe and Eurasia. Coal dominates in the Asia Pacific Region, while Natural Gas is the leading fuel in Europe and Eurasia. The Asia Pacific region accounted for two-thirds global energy consumption last year.

introduction to current energy use28
Introduction to current Energy Use

World Energy Use for Electricity Generation

64% combustion

  • 39% coal
  • 15% gas
  • 10% oil
  • 16% nuclear
  • 19% hydro-electric

World Nuclear Association, 2008

introduction to current energy use29
Introduction to current Energy Use

World Energy Resource Trends

Year 2000 Year 2020

405*1015 BTU 610*1015 BTU – 50% increase

Source : EIA, U.S, DOE, 2007

energy sustainability discussion
Energy Sustainability Discussion

Primary Energy : All We Use Comes from the Sun. Energy sustainability requires use of resources at the same rate at which they are naturally replenished on earth without externalities.”

Source : BMW Group, 2000

energy sustainability discussion31
Energy Sustainability Discussion

Earth at night - 2007

energy sustainability discussion32
Energy Sustainability Discussion

Earth at night 2030

electricity consumption
Electricity Consumption

introduction to current energy use34
Introduction to Current Energy Use

World-Wide Total Energy Sources

86.5% combustion

  • 21.1% Natural Gas
  • 32.6% oil
  • 22.2% coal
  • 10.6% traditional biomass
  • 5.7% nuclear
  • 5.5% hydro-electric
  • 2.3% renewables (other than traditional biomass)

Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

energy sustainability discussion35
Energy Sustainability Discussion


A small number, BUT, at this IEA forecast average annual growth rate (2.5%) world electricity demand will double by 2030


IEA forecasts world carbon dioxide emissions due to power generation to increase over 75% from 2002 to 2030 (from 9417 metric tons to 16771 metric tons)

1.5 billion

2006 world population equals 6.7 billion. The UN forecasts population will grow to 8.2 Billion by 2030. That’s another 1.5 billion people who will need electricity…equivalent to adding 5 new USA’s to the globe.

energy sustainability discussion36
Energy Sustainability Discussion
  • Current overall “effectiveness” of energy consumption is DEPRESSING
  • We Would be better off burning a lump of coal at home to produce light?
  • Highly poor end-use efficiency
  • - Transport emissions/efficiency challenges.
  • - End-use emissions.
global climate
Global Climate

Solar irradiation enters atmosphere primarily as UV radiation

Earth radiation to space is primarily Infra-red radiation

Composition of atmosphere affects how much energy is absorbed, reflected, transmitted through,….

  • Similar to a car window

IPCC, 2006 ;

global climate38
Global Climate

Many factors influence climate One cannot prove that human activity is causing climate change, but, preponderance of evidence is certain

IPCC, 2006 ;

global climate41
Global Climate

Carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, sea level continue to rise long after emissions are reduced.

IPCC, 2006 ;

global climate42
Global Climate

Departures in temperatures ( degree celsius ) from 1961-1990 average

IPCC, 2006 ;

energy sustainability discussion43
Energy Sustainability Discussion

Source : EIA, U.S., DOE, 2007

energy sustainability discussion44
Energy Sustainability Discussion

We SHOULD move towards “clean” energy Technologies

  • “Green Tech” and “clean energy” have become Wall Street darlings – GOOD.
  • Need much more than hype.

Global Installation/Production Growth : Solar, Wind, Biofuels

Source : Clean Energy, Inc.

energy sustainability discussion45
Energy Sustainability Discussion

Proven Energy Resources around the world

Reserves-to-production (R/P) : R/P ratios represent the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at the previous year's rate. It is calculated by dividing remaining reserves at the end of the year by the production in that year.

BP website –

energy sustainability
Energy Sustainability

Proved reserves at end 2006

energy sustainability discussion47
Energy Sustainability Discussion

Caifornia Global Climate Initiatives

  • Achieving goals will require “remarkable” and “significant” adoption of new technologies affecting all economic sectors.
  • Electricity generation sector example

Source : Ferguson, CEERT, March2,2007

energy sustainability discussion48
Energy Sustainability Discussion

Oil Discovery and Production Trends

Source : Campbell, Hubbert Peak, 2005

energy sustainability49
Energy Sustainability

Historical and projected Oil production vs. Region

Source : Campbell, Hubbert Peak, 2005

introduction to current energy use50
Introduction to Current Energy Use

Petroleum Production

Projected Peak oil (2016-2028)

Source : Oil and Gas Journal, 2004

introduction to current energy use51
Introduction to Current Energy Use

World Oil Demand Growth (change from previous year)

Source : EIA, U.S., DOE, 2008

sustainable energy technology52
Sustainable Energy Technology

Dish Stirling Engine

  • Uses Carnot Cycle
  • High heat capacity working fluid (usually Hydrogen)

The age of petroleum is coming to an end, and the future is dangerously insecure.

  • Oil demand will shortly exceed the production capacity of even the largest suppliers. The world economy is moving towards an uneasy transition.
  • The open question is when the peak oil usage occur. Can the world renewable and green sources of energy be able to continue the industry in the same way as it is at present.
  • Global warming is an engineering problem, not a moral crusade. Until we solve the problem, it's hypocrisy to pretend we can stop.

  • Accepted age for the Earth and the rest of the solar system is about 4.55 billion years. It took billion of years to produce world oil, gas and coal reserve.
  • Recorded history of Homo Sapiens is about 5000 years old.
  • For 5000 years, man used wood , wood charcoal , wind and water power .
  • Since the industrial revolution, man has been using coal.
  • Man has been using oil for one hundred years. How long would it last?

  • Man has been present on earth : 5000/4000000=0.1%
  • Man has been using energy : 5000/100000=5%
  • Man has been using oil : 100/5000=2%
  • Results: Man has populated the earth and exhausted it resources.

  • The parallel issue that is also in a concern is the Global warming.
  • For a sustainable life and preventing Global warming, man must minimizing the dependence on oil.
  • Renewable and Green Energy


What is the Concept of Green Energy ?

Power generation using environmental-friendly energy sources.

  • Hydrogen Based Resources
  • Fuel cells
  • Renewable Energy Sources
  • Photovoltaic cells
  • Wind power
  • Storage Devices
  • Ultra capacitors
  • Batteries
  • Flywheels


What are the Benefits of Distributed Generation Systems ?

  • Installation near to the local loads.
  • Power losses of distribution network can be reduced by reducing the power flow in the transmission lines.
  • On-site standby power systems during grid outages
  • Peak load shaving
  • Modular structure makes system expansion easy. e.g. fuel cell-micro turbine or micro turbine-battery systems.
  • Combined heat and power (CHP) applications.

germany solar initiative
Germany Solar Initiative
  • The "Feed-in Law" in Germany permits customers to receive preferential tariffs for solar generated electricity depending on the nature and size of the installation. Under the new tariff structure introduced in 2004, the base level of compensation for ground-mounted systems can be up to 45.7 euro cents/kWh. PV installations on buildings receive higher rates of up to 57.4 euro cents/kWh.

germany solar initiative61
Germany Solar Initiative
  • The Feed-in Law fixes tariffs for approved renewable energy projects for a 20-year period from the plant commissioning and will apply incremental price cuts. Tariffs were initially set at 48.1 cents per kilowatt hour for solar energy, 8.6 cents per kWh for wind, from 9.6 to 8.2 cents per kWh for biomass, 8.4 to 6.7 cents per kWh for geothermal and 7.2 to 6.3 cents per kWh for hydropower, waste and sewage gas.
  • The Feed-in Law requires that the tariff paid for solar electricity be reduced by 5% per year, and by 6.5% per annum for ground-mounted systems.

germany solar initiative62
Germany Solar Initiative
  • Some 20,000 solar electricity systems yielding an output of about 145 Megawatts (MW) were installed in 2003, almost twice the volume installed in the previous year.

The total solar electricity capacity in Germany is now estimated at over 400 Megawatts. Germany saw slow growth in 2006, but still remains by far the largest PV market in the world.

germany solar initiative63
Germany Solar Initiative

968 Megawatts of PV were installed in Germany in 2006. The German solar market generated total revenues of over 800 million euros in 2003.

The German PV industry generates over 10,000 jobs in production, distribution and installation. Over 90% of solar PV installations are in grid-tied applications in Germany. The balance is off-grid (or stand alone) systems

germany solar initiative64
Germany Solar Initiative

PV Installations by Year in Germany (in Megawatts)1990(0.60 MW)1991(1.00 MW)1992(3.10MW) 1993 (3.5 MW)1994 (4.0 MW)1995 (5.9 MW)1996 (10.6 MW)1997 (14.5 MW)1998 (12.6 MW) 1999 (16.5 MW)

2000 (44.0 MW)2001 ( 80.0 MW)2002 (83.0 MW) 2003 (145.0 MW)

germany solar initiative65
Germany Solar Initiative
  • The world's largest PV installation is in Germany, at Hemau in Bavaria. It consists of 32,740 solar modules with a combined peak power output of 4 Megawatts.
  • Some German states have subsidy programs for PV installations that can be used in combination with the national Feed-in Law.

germany solar initiative66
Germany Solar Initiative
  • German Energy and Electricity Industry German domestic energy sources in 1998 were: Coal: 46%, Nuclear power: 31%, Natural Gas: 14%, Renewable Energy: 6% and Oil: 3%. In consumption terms, though, oil accounted for 44%, or 2.8 million barrels per day. Of the renewable energy segment, wind energy accounts for about 58%, Hydropower 30%, Biomass 12%, and solar and other source for the balance.


Selected Energy Statistics by Country(1998)Source: International Energy Agency


Shenzhen Sunshine Electronics Co Ltd China 4-6/F, No. 1 Building Nangang Industrial Park II Xili Town, Nanshan District Shenzhen Guangdong China Tel: (86 755) 27653478Fax: (86 755) 27653475 E Mail:

SunWare GmbH & Co. KG Germany Dusseldorfer Strasse 80, DE-47239, Duisburg (Rumeln), Germany Tel: 49 2151 406045 Fax: 49 2151 406208 E Mail:

Sunworld (Shanghai) Solar Energy Technology Co., Ltd China Rm.1501, Tongquan Building, No.678 Gubei Road Changning District, Shanghai, China Tel: 86 21 6295 9165Fax: 86 21 6295 9216E Mail:

energy sustainability discussion77
Energy Sustainability Discussion

Where does sun’s energy go?

sustainable energy technology78
Sustainable Energy Technology

Other Solar Thermal

  • Reflecting mirrors, troughs,etc.
  • Various designs, some “tracking”
  • All use working fluid and turbine

sustainable energy technology79
Sustainable Energy Technology


  • Around for at least 6 decades
  • Roots in space program (1950s)
  • Many useful applications
  • Not typically economical in central station generation.
  • System capital cost of approx. $4,500-9,500/kW
  • Power cost of $0.15 to $0.5/kWh
  • Intermittent power (usually requires energy storage)
  • Peak output often coincident with peak electrical demands.

sustainable energy technology80
Sustainable Energy Technology

Large wind(>50kW) – large and utility applications.

sustainable energy technology82
Sustainable Energy Technology
  • Fuel Cells: System operation
  • Fuel Cell Stack
  • Fuel Processing
  • Electric power Conversion
  • Balance of plant

System integration is very important for both “simple cycle” & “hybrid” fuel cell system

sustainable energy technology83
Sustainable Energy Technology

Fuel Cell types

sustainable energy technology84
Sustainable Energy Technology

Renewable hybrid Systems