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Glossary Of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems

Glossary Of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems

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Glossary Of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems

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  1. Glossary Of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Drug Delivery Systems

  2. Aerosols • Pharmaceutical aerosols are: Products packaged under pressure that contain therapeutically active ingredients that are released as a : • fine mist, • spray, or • foam on actuation of the valve assembly. The pressure within the aerosol container is given by: • an inert compressed or liquefied gas, termed the propellant.

  3. Type of emission depends on: • ………………………; • ………………………. • Types of emissions: (i) fine mist; (ii) coarse spray, (iii) foam, etc. • Some aerosol emissions are intended to be: • ………………………; • ……………………….

  4. Some aerosols have metered valve: Assemblies to permit a specific quantity of emission on valve actuation for dosage regulation.

  5. Aromatic water Aromatic waters are: • clear, saturated solutions of volatile oils or other aromatic substances in water. • They are used ………,………, or ………for the characteristics of the aromatic material they contain.

  6. Capsules • Capsules are solid dosage forms in which one or more medicinal and/or inert substances are enclosed within sII\all shells of gelatin. • Capsule shells are produced in varying sizes, shapes, thickness, softness, and color. • Hard shell capsules, .which have two telescoping pares-the body and the cap-are commonly used in extemporaneous hand-filling opera­tions as well as in small and large scale manufacture of commercial capsules. • Usually are filled with powder mixtures and granules. • After filling, the two capsule pares are joined for tight closure. • They may also be sealed and bonded through a variety of special processes for added quality assurance and capsule integrity.

  7. Soft-shell gelatin capsules, which are unibodied, are formed, filled, and sealed in the same process. • Highly specialized and large-scale equipment is required, • Thus, soft gelatin capsules are only prepared commercially. • They are rendered soft through the addition of a plasticizer to the capsule shell formulation. • Soft gelatin capsules may be filled with semisolids, or liquids.

  8. In addition to their medication content, capsules usually contain inert pharmaceutical substances, such as fillers:(i) ………………………; (ii) ………………………; (iii) ………………………; ..etc. • When swallowed, the gelatin shell is dissolved by the gastrointestinal fluids, releasing the contents. • Capsules containing only nontherapeutic materials are termed ………………………. • ………………………are used widely in controlled clinical studies to evaluate the activity of a drug compared to non-drug in a group of human subjects.

  9. Enteric coated capsules and tablets, or their granulated contents. • Arecoated with special materials which is gastric fluid resist to: • ………………………or; • ………………………. • Drugs in enteric coated products are intended to be released after transit through the stomach into the intestines.

  10. Extended-release capsules are formulated to: provide the active release of the medication from the dosage form over an extended period of time, such as 24 hours. • The purpose is to: • ………………………; • ………………………; • ……………………….

  11. Collodions • Collodions are liquid preparations composed of pyroxylin dissolved in a solvent mixture usually composed of alcohol and ether with or without added medicinal substances. • They are intended for external application to the skin. • The solvent rapidly evaporates, leaving a thin protective film of pyroxylin (and medication, such as salicylic acid as a corn remover) ……………………….

  12. Creams • Creams are semisolid preparations containing one or more drug substances dissolved or dispersed in a suitable base. • Creams are used primarily for administering drugs to the skin, although some are prepared for vaginal use. • Many creams are either: • ………………………or; • ………………………or; • ………………………. • Compared to ointments, creams are: • ………………………; • ……………………….

  13. drug delivery systems (DDS) • Various physical carriers are used to deliver medications to site-specific areas in various • Routes of DDS are: (i) transdermal; (ii) ocular; (iii) intrauterine systems. • Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are designed to support the passage of drug substances from the ………………………, through its various layers, ………………………. • The systems are highly sophisticated skin patches containing the drug formulation within a reservoir as part of the device for the controlled delivery of drug into the skin.

  14. Ocular drug delivery systemsconsist of drug-impregnated membranes, which when placed in the lower conjunctival sac, release medication over an extended period. . . • Intrauterine drug delivery systemsconsist of a drug-containing intrauterine device that releases medication over an extended period after insertion

  15. Pull down the cheek, stabilize hand with dropper on patient's forehead, have patient look up, and place the drop in the conjunctival sac.

  16. Elixirs • Elixirs are sweetened, flavored, hydroalcoholic solutions intended for oral administration. • They may be ………………………or ……………………… • Compared to syrups, elixirs are usually less ……………………… and less ……………………… because they contain a lesser amount of ………………………. • elixirs are better able than are syrups to maintain both water-soluble and alcohol-soluble components in solution. • Additional co-solvents, such as ……………………… or ………………………, also may be used.

  17. The proportion of alcohol present in elixirs varies widely with the formulation and the requirements for solution. • Elixirs of high alcoholic content generally include artificial sweeteners rather than sucrose as the sweetener. • Because of their alcoholic content, elixirs generally are not administered to: • ………………………; • ………………………or; • ………………………

  18. Emulsions • An emulsion is a type of disperse system in which one liquid is dispersed throughout another liquid in the form of fine droplets. • The two liquids, generally an oil and water, are immiscible and constitute two phases that tend to separate into layers. • A third agent, an emulsifier or emulsifying agent (EA), is added to facilitate the emulsification process and to provide stability to the system. • The disperse phase is referred to as theinternal phase, • The dispersing phase is termed theexternal phase.

  19. When the oil is the internal phase, the emulsion is called an oil-in-water or "o/w" emulsion. • If water is the internal phase, the emulsion is called a water-in-oil or "w/o" emulsion. • The type of emulsion produced is largely determined by the hydrophilicity or lipophilicity of the EA. • EA may have both hydrophilic and lipophilic characteristics. • The term hydrophile­lipophile balance (HlB number): • ………………………; • ………………………: • EA that are more hydrophilic generally produce O/W emulsions, • EA that are more lipophilic generally produce W/O emulsions.

  20. Calculations are used to determine the quantities of oil, water, and EA to use in preparing a stable emulsion. • Oral Emulsions are prepared & administered orally for the medicinal benefit of the oil (e.g., mineral oil, oleaginous vitamins A and D). • The taste and oleaginous feel of the oil is masked: • ………………………; • ………………………,. • ………………………: lotions, foams, and creams. 4. Intravenous Emulsions are prepared for the nutritional benefit of the oil (usually ………………………).

  21. Implants or pellets • Implants or pellets are small, sterile, solid dosage forms containing concentrated drug • ……………………… • ………………………. • ……………………… • ………………………

  22. FDA clears implantable contraceptive 19 July 2006 It is a contraceptive device that slides under the skin, and lasts up to three years. It fills a gap left by Norplant, whose bulky implant went off the market in 2000.

  23. Inhalations • Inhalations are finely powdered drug substances, solutions, or suspensions of drug sub­stances administered by the nasal or oral respiratory route for local or systemic effects. • Special devices are used to facilitate administration.

  24. Thanks to a new insulin inhaler, researchers say, the daily injections many diabetics take may become relics of the past.

  25. Injections • Injections are sterile preparations intended for parenteral administration by needle or pressure syringe. • Drugs may be injected into most any vessel or tissue of the body. • The most common routes are intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC). • Injections may be solutions or suspensions of a drug substance in an aqueous or non-aqueous vehicle. • They may be small volume 'injections, packaged in ampoules for single-dose administration or. • Vials for multiple dose injections.

  26. Large volume parenterals, (l00 mL to 1000 mL of fluid), are intended for the slow intravenous administration (or infusion) of medications and/or nutrients in the institutional or home-care setting. • Calculations include a number of special aspects: • the relation of the injection volume to drug dosage; • patient factors such as weight, body surface area, or disease state; • The relation of the dosing regimen to the flow rate of the parenteral; • Formulation calculations related to isotonicity, osmolality, or milliequivalent content

  27. Some injections are available in the dry state, (i.e. ………………………)with a prescribed liquid immediately before use. • Calculations may be used to 'determine the quantity of liquid needed to prepare a product of desired concentration. • A similar circumstance applies when the pharmacist is called on to place a drug "additive" (………………………) in a large-volume parenteral fluid to achieve a specified concentration of drug. • The source of the additive may be an ampoule or vial of the desired drug. • Requiring the pharmacist to calculate the volume of injection to add to the parenteral fluid.

  28. Liniments • Liniments are alcoholic or oleaginous solutions, suspensions, or emulsions of medicinal agents intended for external application to the skin, generally by rubbing.

  29. Lotions • Lotions are liquid preparations intended for external application to the skin. • Generally lotions are suspensions or emulsions of dispersed solid or liquid materials in an aqueous vehicle. • Their fluidity allows rapid and uniform application over a wide skin surface. • Lotions are intended to ………………………and ………………………of their components on the skin's surface as they dry.

  30. Lozenges • Similar term (s): pastille, tablet, troche • Lozenges are solid preparations containing: • ………………………; • ………………………, ………………………. • Lozenges are intended to dissolve or disintegrate slowly in the mouth. • Lozenges release medication generally for localized effects. • Lozenges are prepared by ……………………… or ………………………. • often contains a demulcent [i.e. a substance that ……………………… inflamed mucous membranes].

  31. Magmas & Gels • Magmas and gels are examples of fine pharmaceutical suspensions. • The suspensoid has a high degree of physical attraction to the aqueous vehicle. • This attraction forms a gelatinous mixture that maintains the uniformity & stability of the suspension. • Magmas and gels are administered ……………………… & ……………………….

  32. Ointments • Ointments are semisolid preparations intended for topical application. • Most ointments are applied to the skin, although-they may also be administered ophthalmically, nasally, aurally, rectally, or vaginally. • With few exceptions, ointments are applied for their local effects on the tissue membrane rather than for systemic effects. • It is possible for systemic effects to occur after the topical application of medications. • Systemic absorption, which takes place through the skin's surface, is referred to as ……………………….

  33. Percutaneous absorption may be enhanced by many factors: • ………………………; • Through the hydrophilic­lipophilic nature of the drug; • By virtue of the occlusive features of the topical preparation and/or dressing.

  34. Non-medicated ointments serve as the vehicles, or ointment bases, for the addition of medication. • Ointment bases are usually of four general types: (1) hydrocarbon or oleaginous bases (………………………), which do not mix well with aqueous preparations and provide an ……………………… barrier to the skin; (2) absorption bases (such as lanolin), which permit the absorption of aqueous solutions, usually resulting in W/O emulsions; (3) water­removable bases (hydrophilic ointment), which are oil-in-water emulsions, or, (4) water-soluble bases (polyethylene glycol ointment), both of which are water washable.

  35. In preparing a medicated ointment, the appropriate ointment base is selected to which the medication is added. • The solid and semisolid materials in ointments are generally weighed in preparing a prescription or product. • Liquid components may be measured ………………………or converted by calculation to corresponding weight and then weighed. • Because ointments are semisolid preparations, they are also ………………………, ………………………, and ………………………on a weight basis. • Special care must be taken in the preparation of ophthalmic ointments to render them: • free from ……………………… and • to assure that the powders used in the formulation are either dissolved or micronized to reduce or eliminate ……………………… that could cause eye irritation.

  36. Pastes • Pastes are semisolid dosage forms that contain one or more drug substances intended for topical application. • Generally, pastes contain a higher proportion of solid materials than ointments. • They are more stiff, less greasy, and more absorptive of serous secretions when used on the skin. • Medicated dental pastes are also prepared for adhesion to the mucous membranes for local effect.

  37. Plasters • Plasters are solid or semisolid adhesive masses spread across a suitable backing material. • Intended for external application to a part of the body for protection or for the medicinal benefit of added agents.

  38. Powders • Powders are dry mixtures of finely divided medicinal and non-medicinal agents intended for internal or external use. • Powders may be dispensed to a patient and used in • bulk form (such as powders measured by the spoonful to make a douche solution); • divided into single dosage units and packaged in folded palters or unit of use envelopes.

  39. Solutions • Solutions are liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances (solute/s) dissolved in a solvent or mixture of solvents. • The solutes may be active or inactive ingredients • The solutes may be solids, liquids, or gases in their natural undissolved state. • The most common solvent used in pharmaceuticals is: water; • alcohol, • glycerin, and propylene glycol are used as solvents or co-solvents depending on the product requirements for ……………………… and ……………………….

  40. Solutions are formulated for administration by various routes such as : • Oral solutions(mouth); • Ophthalmic solutions(eye); • Otic solutions(ear); • Nasal solutions(nose); • Rectal solutions; • Urethral solutions; • Epicutaneous solutions(skin); • Injectable solutions; • Irrigations solutions(used to bathe or flush open wounds or body cavities are termed). • Certain solutions have special requirements, such as sterility (e.g., injections, irrigations, and ophthalmic solutions).

  41. The concentration of active ingredients in solutions varies greatly. • Some solutions are very diluted, whereas others are highly concentrated. • The concentration of a given solution may be expressed in molar strength, milliequivalent strength, percentage strength, ratio strength, or other expression (e.g., milligrams per milliliter). • Knowledge the content or concentration of a solution is critical in calculating the volume required to administer a desired dose of drug.

  42. Spirits • Spirits are alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances. • Depending on their contents, some spirits are used orally for medicinal purposes and others as flavoring agents.

  43. Suspensions • Suspensions are preparations containing finely divided, undissolved drug particles dispersed throughout a liquid vehicle. • depending on the concentration and size of the undissolved suspended particles, suspensions assume a degree of opacity. • Suspensions are one type of disperse systems, common among pharmaceutical preparations. • The suspended particles are referred to as the ………………………, the ………………………, or ………………………. • The vehicle is termed the ………………………or ……………………… phase. • The particles of the disperse phase may be colloidal (about 1 µm or less), fine (about 1 f.Lm), or coarse (lOO f.Lm).

  44. Particles of greater density have a tendency to settle and form a sediment. • The addition of suspending agents, which add viscosity to the vehicle, is one method of maintaining the dispersed phase in suspension. • Before administration, it is essential to redistribute any ……………………… particles to assure uniform dosing. • Suspensions are formulated for administration by a number of routes, including: • oral; • otic; • ophthalmic; • epidermal; • parenteral (by injection). • Ophthalmic suspensions must be: • ……………………… and the suspension must be ……………………… or ………………………to eliminate any grittiness that might cause irritation

  45. Suppositories • Suppositories are solid dosage forms intended for insertion into body orifices where they melt, soften, or dissolve and exert localized or systemic effects. • They are commonly used rectally and vaginally, and occasionally urethrally. • Suppositories are prepared in various weights, sizes, and shapes depending on their intended use.