2nd week Presentation of Applied Linguistics Prepared By: • Chia • Farhad • MuahmadBarozhi • Narmin • Afifa • Pishtiwan
How to teach language • Language teaching could take place by: • 1. following elaborated and precise set of instruction • 2. by applying some set of general principles to particular situations
Who are good teachers? Good teachers do not work according to the rule of thumb or recipe (like a cook) They would rather work according to general principles to a particular situation
Language teaching is an Art rather than a scientific process and it proceeds on the basis of trial and error. General principles are important in order to evaluate them later.
Teaching and classroom L. Teaching is not restricted to classrooms. The following takes place outside classrooms: Planning lessons, correcting, assessing progress, discussing with colleagues, selecting and producing textbooks
Language teaching operation • Decisions that are not made by the classroom teachers but affect the learning and teaching: • the relative place of L teaching • The nature of syllabus and examining system • Organization of the educational system in general
Some important decisions There are several important decision that affect the pedagogical process like: 1. political 2. economic 3. social
Role of applied linguistics Identification and analysis of certain class problems L. Teaching Provision of some answers to them It cannot give all the answers to the problems It cannot give the final answer to certain problem
Description of languages made for reasons both internal and external which aims at comprehensiveness, then can be regarded as an application of linguistics. The making of description, involves the application of theory to data. A theory is one which can provide a complete and logically coherent analysis of any data, but descriptions are of languages, dialects or varieties of a language .the data to be analyzed must be in the form of samples drawn from language, dialect or variety, this means we must have some criterion for deciding whether a particular data does or does not belong to a particular language.
The criteria for distinguishing between language, dialects and varieties are: Sociological and psychological criteria: such notions as “speech community, attitude of language, language loyalty and linguistic norm.
Comparing language descriptions is part of linguistics linguists may interested in the properties of particular languages for their sake and they are interested in the nature of human language such as languages are very various in their structural properties. Linguist seeks to classify them, discover what is common to all languages finally delimit the boundaries of human languages, in discovering the genetic relations between languages and how one of the same language changes over time.
Contrastive linguistic studies: Contrastive linguistics seeks to study and explain any two languages. This includes listing the differences and similarities between them. Contrastive linguistics has also been called differential linguistics and is a sub-section of comparative linguistics that is separated by its studying of only two languages at any one time. This area studies languages in order to discern how they developed as they did and what other languages they are historically related to. For example, comparative linguistic studies of Hungarian show its earliest links to Chinese and Korean, then how it was influenced by Mongolian, Turkish and other languages as the Magyars moved west across Siberia and eventually into Europe. Such studies have also shown how and when Hungarian split from its closest language partner, Fin no-Estonian
Error analysis Error analysis is a descriptive and comparative technique in applied linguistics. Speaker of 2nd L. may make uncorrected form of target L., this demonstrate to idiosyncratic characteristic. Error analysis is an activity as diagnostic L. test and it shows L. problems and suggest ways for solution. Error analysis is also apart of psycholinguistic research of 2nd L. learning: it explain the reasons of making errors by learners. it gives information about the best steps that 2nd L. learner should follow. This information is important for arranging syllabus materials and decide how to present in a good way.
Error analysis Error analysis is also used in L. disorder and gives good information and suggest suitable treatment. In child L. acquisition, when incorrect form of L. is use, it’s not error or in literacy stylistic, in this cases they called idiosyncratic dialects, it can be consider comparing between two languages not error analyzing. Language is used in different social situations so the syllabus should be set according to the need of learner in social situations to use the language property. Basic knowledge element should be learned to use for any purposes, this called common core. The process of selecting important forms of target L. (not comparing two languages) is called intra linguistic comparison.
Error analysis Sociological approach discover variability and relate use of L. form to social situation, it derived from descriptive work of selecting materials. Use of L. form is depended on the social nature of interaction ( science, legal, ….), so designing syllabus should fulfill learners need and the aim they use the L. Inter-linguistics and error analysis focus on differences in kind but intra-linguistics differences are matter of degree. We should remember, linguistically, distinction between languages or dialects are arbitrary and the essential comparative studies are apparent.
Criteria in the organization of a syllabus There is no neat one-to-one relationship between description and comparison on the one hand, and the processes of selection, organization and presentation on the other. In a general sense, description identifies the range of what is there for learning, while comparison serves to select out of that range what has to be learned in the case of any particular set of learners. Both processes use theoretical (vocabulary, grammar and phonological features of language) and sociolinguistic (speech acts and communicative actions) approaches to language. The problems of organizing the material to be taught introduces psycholinguistic and pedagogical considerations. What ever logic there may be in the grouping, sequencing and staging of a teaching syllabus does not derive exclusively or to any great extent from structural linguistic theory. (i.e. there is no theoretical linguistic reasons why one tense should be taught before another.)
Criteria in the organization of a syllabus There are criteria based on sociolinguistic considerations of the functions of language in communication; general classification of the material into areas of socialization, like; the home, the school, the work place. The analysis of language behavior into different types of verbal activity such as speaking, writing, reading and listening also provides a rough psycholinguistic categorization relevant to the structuring of the syllabus.
Criteria in the organization of a syllabus • In practice all these principles of classification are used in syllabus organization; which one is dominant in any particular language teaching operation depends very largely on the nature and needs of the learner. Whatever criteria or set of criteria one adopts, and it is likely to be a mixed set and the principles of syllabus structuring must derive from theoretical linguistics.
Grammar Translation MethodIf we go back to the history of language teaching, we realize that the form of the description of language being taught was not significantly different from that used in the works of linguistic scholarship. The main difference coming from Listing of the exceptions to rules or the range of coverage or comprehensiveness . Thus we find GTM. The term Grammar is used in traditional sense of the description of language including statement about syntax, semantics, morphology and phonology. In this method the teacher is the controller of the class, and the students has passive role. Native language is used in the class. A change has taken place because notion about how languages are learned have changed. There were no more books entitled “ Grammar of ……… Lnaguge”The most important difference between old method and new methods are : in the class the data has been controlled and structured to facilitate the process of discovery and practice. This data is mostly accompanied by description and explanations of the systems and use of the language.
Knowledge is not enough In order to achieve reliable and consistent results in any practical task, either reaching or any other tasks, we have not to depend on the best available knowledge only, we have to check that this knowledge is properly applied. After that we need checking to make sure our task is successful or not, before it was done through testing. Measuring individuals in number of psychological dimensions, such as intelligence, personality, and motivation is the field of psychometry, it is a branch of applied psychology. If we wish to measure linguistic knowledge and skills, the tests should presuppose the description of the structure and the use of language being learned. That is to say, language testing is an integral part of applied linguistics and making test logically the last in a series of applied linguistic procedure.
Purpose of Testing Tests may be done for: 1- prediction. 2- measuring aptitude of a learner for learning a language. 3- continuing further study of a language. 4- Assessing the present knowledge of a learner 5-Finding out the problems that learners are facing.