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Second language writers meet first-year composition. Margi Wald Lecturer, College Writing Programs Director, Summer English Language Institute UC Berkeley, mwald@berkeley.edu CATESOL 2011, April 9, Long Beach, CA. WPA framework: “Habits of mind”.

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second language writers meet first year composition

Second language writers meet first-year composition

Margi Wald

Lecturer, College Writing Programs

Director, Summer English Language Institute

UC Berkeley, mwald@berkeley.edu

CATESOL 2011, April 9, Long Beach, CA

wpa framework habits of mind
WPA framework: “Habits of mind”
  • Curiosity – the desire to know more about the world.
  • Openness – the willingness to consider new ways of being and thinking in the world.
  • Engagement – a sense of investment and involvement in learning.
  • Creativity – the ability to use novel approaches for generating, investigating, and representing ideas.
  • Persistence – the ability to sustain interest in and attention to short- and long-term projects.
  • Responsibility – the ability to take ownership of one’s actions and understand the consequences of those actions for oneself and others.
  • Flexibility – the ability to adapt to situations, expectations, or demands.
  • Metacognition – the ability to reflect on one’s own thinking as well as on the individual and cultural processes used to structure knowledge.

Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing, Council of Writing Program Administrators, 2011 <http://wpacouncil.org/framework>

wpa framework reading writing experiences
WPA framework: Reading / writing “experiences”
  • Rhetorical knowledge – the ability to analyze and act on understandings of audiences, purposes, and contexts in creating and comprehending texts;
  • Critical thinking – the ability to analyze a situation or text and make thoughtful decisions based on that analysis, through writing, reading, and research;
  • Writing processes – multiple strategies to approach and undertake writing and research;
  • Knowledge of conventions – the formal and informal guidelines that define what is considered to be correct and appropriate, or incorrect and inappropriate, in a piece of writing; and
  • Abilities to compose in multiple environments – from using traditional pen and paper to electronic technologies.
academic literacy competencies
Academic literacy competencies
  • According to faculty, 1/3 of entering students are insufficiently prepared for the two most common writing assignments: “analyzing information and arguments and synthesizing information from several sources”
  • 83% of faculty note that students’ “lack of analytical reading skills contribute to students’ lack of success in courses.”

Academic Literacy: A Statement of Competencies Expected of Students Entering California’s Public Colleges and Universities

some assignments from the college writing programs
Some assignments from the College Writing Programs
  • Rhetorical Analysis: Analyze Bill Clinton’s speech at the Democratic National Convention. Be sure to begin with a clear description of the rhetorical situation (Hillary ‘lost’ to Obama; Bill is a well-liked former president) to ground your analysis of Clinton’s goals and techniques.
  • Critique: Choose one or more article(s) written to support or oppose the DREAM Act. Highlight the main approaches the author(s) use(s) and discuss the limitations of these arguments. Use outside sources as necessary to support your critique.
some assignments from the college writing programs1
Some assignments from the College Writing Programs
  • Analysis/Genre Comparison: Write an argument which compares and contrasts the approaches used by Kozol (Savage Inequalities) and Biddle & Berliner (“What Research Says About Unequal Funding for Schools in America”) given their differing rhetorical situations.
  • Persuasion: Use information from Kozol’s Shame of the Nation, the video “Making the Grade,” your own observations, and other sources to support your position on UC Berkeley’s holistic admissions policy. Be sure to address your opposition’s potential concerns.
some assignments from the college writing programs2
Some assignments from the College Writing Programs
  • Synthesis: In his essay, Rodriguez asks us to ponder the question “what is a border?” in a globalized, transnational world. Davis’ essay looks at “third borders” within US cites that segregate communities and Mukherjee’s essay presents several metaphors of immigration. How have these pieces re-defined the term “border”?
  • Intertextuality: Use DuBois’ notion of ‘double consciousness’ to analyze one or more of the following pieces: Rodriguez’s “Aria,” Anzaldúa’s “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” and/or Liu’s “The Accidental Asian.”
reading writing
Reading / writing
  • Understanding of rhetorical situation / audience
reading writing1
Reading / writing
  • Understanding of rhetorical situation / audience
  • Privileging of certain kinds of critical thinking
reading writing2
Reading / writing
  • Understanding of rhetorical situation / audience
  • Privileging of certain kinds of critical thinking
  • Addressing complex topics -- breaking out of single modes
reading writing3
Reading / writing
  • Understanding of rhetorical situation / audience
  • Privileging of certain kinds of critical thinking
  • Addressing complex topics -- breaking out of single modes
  • Borrowing of text -- legitimate and illegitimate
reading writing4
Reading / writing
  • Borrowing of text -- legitimate and illegitimate
texts assigned
Texts assigned
  • Reading load / length
texts assigned1
Texts assigned
  • Reading load / length
  • Text types / models
texts assigned2
Texts assigned
  • Reading load / length
  • Text types / models
  • Assumed or necessary cultural ‘literacy’
grammar and vocabulary
Grammar and vocabulary
  • Structures and vocabulary prevalent in spoken vs. written registers
features of conversation
Pronouns

Inserts

Sentence fragments

Questions

Attention Getters

Interjections

Repeats

Reduced Forms

Contractions

Colloquialisms

(Bennett, TESOL 2011)

Features of Conversation
features of academic writing
Nouns and noun phrases

Definite noun phrase used in cataphoric expression

Nominalization

Preposition+which relativizer

Comparative adjs

Passive voice

Modified noun phrases

Relative clauses

(Bennett, TESOL 2011)

Degree modifiers

Single adverbials

Though

Existential there

Coordination tags

Classifiers

That/those + of –phrase

Linking adverbials

Non-finite, verbless clauses

Subordinate phrases

Features of academic writing
same structures different uses
Same structures / Different uses
  • Single adverbial subordinators are used differently in academic prose than other registers.
  • 95% of uses of since are used for reason in academic prose, but for time in conversation:
    • Since extracting stem cells in embryos ends the development of the embryo, many believe that embryos are human life.
    • That’s the funniest thing I’ve heard since I moved here.
same structures different uses1
Same structures / Different uses
  • 80% of uses of while are used for concession/ contrast in academic prose, but for time in conversation.
    • Alexie’s family was viewed poor by Americans, while still considered middle-class by American Indians.
    • Taking notes is important while listening to a lecture.

(Statistics from Biber, et al., 1999, p. 846;

examples from NAFWiC, 2009; Bennett, 2011).

expressing causality
Expressing Causality
  • Fossil fuels are harmful to our environment because they increase global warming and they are not renewable.
  • Fossil fuels are harmful to our environment, so scientists are working to find and develop alternative energy sources.
  • Eventually, supplies of fossil fuels will be depleted. Therefore, scientists are working to find and develop alternative energy sources.
expressing causality1
Expressing Causality

There is much debate surrounding the use of nuclear energy. Nuclear power plants emit relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). Given the low emissions of green house gases, the creation of nuclear powercontributes very little to global warming, unlike fossil fuels, whose emissions are seen as responsible for climate change. Also, one power plant can generate a substantial amount electrical energy. With such high yield, nuclear energy is considered efficient and profitable.

However, any people reject nuclear energy as an option because of safety concerns. First, nuclear waste can be extremely dangerous and must be carefully stored over many years, resulting in high costs. Also, accidents in nuclear power plants can lead toserious consequences for human and natural life. In light of these potentially devastating outcomes, many people question the viability of nuclear energy as an alternative to fossil fuels.

(Sample based on Flowerdew, 1998; Gillett, 2009; Schleppegrell, 2004)

grammar meets vocabulary
Grammar meets vocabulary
  • Complexity of using academic words accurately in writing
  • Thesaurus errors
    • David’s text: callow perspective
    • Irene’s text: The immigrant acclimatized his context.
  • Register
    • David’s text: disenfranchised, stressed out
  • Feedback
    • “Awkward” (Hao)
    • W/C (others)
what you need to know about a word
What you need to ‘know’ about a word
  • Nation’s list: collocation, derivatives/word forms, connotation, grammatical environment
    • Researchers are quite interested about the relationship between socio-economic class and educational success. (Longman)
    • It is important to recognition this relationship. (Longman)
    • For my interview project, I interrogated four students, two US-born immigrants and two born abroad. (Longman)
    • Results suggest that Hmong child-rearing practices can produce well-adjusted, highly happy children. (COCA)
    • The high cost of tuition dwindled the student’s savings. (Longman, COCA).
investigating vocabulary
Investigating vocabulary
  • Resources -- getting students to investigate words
    • Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English http://www.ldoceonline.com/
    • Cambridge http://dictionary.cambridge.org/,
    • Cobuild http://www.mycobuild.com/free-search.aspx
    • Oxford http://www.oxfordadvancedlearnersdictionary.com/?cc=global
    • Oxford Collocations http://www.lixiaolai.com/ocd/
    • Corpus of Contemporary American English: http://www.americancorpus.org (advanced students)
grammar and vocabulary1
Grammar and Vocabulary
  • Lack of support in class, in teacher feedback or from student services (university writing centers)
    • need for teaching self-editing strategies
references
References
  • Bennett, G. (2011, March). Noticing language features across registers; Applying academic language in EAP writing [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at the annual International TESOL Convention, New Orleans, LA. <http://writing.berkeley.edu/users/mwald/tesol11_panel.html>.
  • Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman.
  • Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and Nation Writing Project (2011). Framework for success in postsecondary writing.
  • Ferris, D. (2001, March). Expectations & challenges for L2 students in undergraduate writing programs. [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at the annual International TESOL Convention, New Orleans, LA.
  • Flowerdew, L. (1998). Integrating ‘expert’ and ‘interlanguage’ computer corpora findings on causality: Discoveries for teachers and students. English for Specific Purposes, 17, 4. 329-345.
references1
References
  • Gillett, A. (2009). Rhetorical functions in academic writing: Cause and effect. Using English for academic purposes: A guide for students in higher education <http://www.uefap.com/writing/function/causeff.htm>.
  • Intersegmental Committee of the Academic Senates. (2002). Academic Literacy: A Statement of Competencies Expected of Students Entering California’s Public Colleges and Universities. Sacramento: Academic Senate for California Community Colleges.
  • North American Freshman Writing Corpus (NAFWiC). (2009). Compiled by Gena Bennett at the Department of English, University of Birmingham, UK.
  • Nation, I.S.P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Schmitt, D. (2011, March). Crossing modalities-From listening to writing. [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at the annual International TESOL Convention, New Orleans, LA. <http://writing.berkeley.edu/users/mwald/tesol11_panel.html>.
classroom texts
Classroom Texts
  • Admissions, Enrolment, and Preperatory Education (AEPE) Committee of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate. (2010). University of California, Berkeley freshmen selection criteria, fall 2011. Berkeley, CA: AEPE Committee of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate.
  • Anzaldúa, G. (1999). How to Tame a Wild Tongue. Borderlands/La frontera: A new mestiza, 2e. Toronto: Consortium Books.
  • Bartholomae, D. & Petrosky, A. (2002). Introduction. Ways of reading: An anthology for writers, 6e. Boston: Bedford / St. Martins. 1-14
  • Bay Window: Making the Grade. (1999, 23 March) KQED.
  • Biddle, B. J. & Berliner, D. C. (2002). Unequal School Funding in the United States. Educational leadership. May 2002. 48-59.
  • Clinton, W.J. (27 August). Lecture. 2008 Democratic National Convention, Denver.
  • Du Bois, W.E.B. (1903). Of Our Spiritual Strivings. The souls of black folk. Available at the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/DubSoul.html.
classroom texts1
Classroom Texts
  • Intersegmental Committee of the Academic Senates. (2002). Academic literacy: A statement of competencies expected of students entering California’s public colleges and universities. Sacramento: Academic Senate for California Community Colleges.
  • Graff, G & Birkenstein, C. (2005). They say / I say: The moves that matter in academic writing. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
  • Kozol, J. (1992). Savage inequalities. New York: Harper.
  • Kozol, J. (2005). The shame of the nation. New York: Three Rivers Press.
  • Liu, E. (1986). Notes of a Native Speaker. The accidental Asian. New York: Vintage Books.
  • Mukherjee, B. (1997). American Dreamer. Mother Jones. Jan/Feb issue. Available at http://www.motherjones.com/commentary/columns/1997/01/mukherjee.html. Retrieved 1/14/04.
  • Rodriguez, R. (1982). Aria. Hunger of memory: The education of Richard Rodriguez. Toronto: Bantam Books
  • Rodriguez, R. (1995, April). Prophets without Papers. Harper’s magazine, 290 (1739). 23.