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Quality Improvement Model. Define Process. Select Measures. Collect & Interpret Data. Purpose: To provide a sequence of steps to improve any process so that the customers will realize the highest quality and value. Is Process Stable ?. No. Investigate & Fix Special Causes. Yes.

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quality improvement model
Quality Improvement Model

Define Process

Select Measures

Collect & Interpret Data

Purpose: To provide a sequence of steps to improve any process so that the customers will realize the highest quality and value.

IsProcessStable?

No

Investigate & Fix Special Causes

Yes

IsProcessCapable?

No

Improve Process Capability

Yes

Develop Control Plan to Maintain Current Process

define process
Define Process

Define Process

Select Measures

Collect & Interpret Data

IsProcessStable?

No

Investigate & Fix Special Causes

1) Communicate to an individual or a team a clear understanding of the process under study.

2) Establish improved and consistent process operations.

1) Identify and list Suppliers, Inputs, Outputs, and Customers (SIPOC/Big Block)

2) Develop flow chart of process steps (Schematic).

3) Develop process map

3) Assure understanding of related procedures.

  • Verify practice vs. procedure of S.O.P's

1) Process Map Excel Workbook

2) Flow Charts or Schematic/SIPOC or Big Block/Process

Map/Detailed Process Map

3) S.O.P's

Yes

IsProcessCapable?

Improve Process Capability

No

Yes

Develop Control Plan to Maintain Current Process

Purposes:

Activities:

Tools:

select measures
Purposes:
  • 1) Develop understanding of customer needs.
  • 2) Determine "possible" process response control points.
  • 1) Review customer needs.
  • 2) Identify/Develop measures that reflect those needs.
  • Describe/Review sampling/testing plans and methods.
  • Process Map Details
  • Types of Process Control (Monitor, SPC, EPC, SOP)
  • 1) Customer Input
  • Sampling and measurement techniques
  • Process Map Master.XLS

Activities:

Tools:

Select Measures

Define Process

Select Measures

Collect & Interpret Data

IsProcessStable?

No

Investigate & Fix Special Causes

Yes

IsProcessCapable?

Improve Process Capability

No

Yes

Develop Control Plan to Maintain Current Process

collect interpret data
Purposes:
  • 1) Begin collecting and analyzing data from the process.
  • 1) Analyze existing data from the process.
  • Determine needs for new data and develop systems for collecting data.
  • Understand sources of variation in process data
  • 1) Run Charts
  • 2) Histograms
  • 3) Pareto Charts
  • Cause-Effect Matrix (CandE_Matrix.XLS)
  • Minitab Software

Activities:

Tools:

Collect & Interpret Data

Define Process

Select Measures

Collect & Interpret Data

IsProcessStable?

No

Investigate & Fix Special Causes

Yes

IsProcessCapable?

Improve Process Capability

No

Yes

Develop Control Plan to Maintain Current Process

is process stable
Purposes:
  • Determine stability of key measures of the product.
  • Understand differences between common and special cause sources of variation.
  • 3) If not stable, proceed to block on "Investigate and Fix Special Causes".
  • 4) If stable, proceed to block on "Is Process Capable?"
  • 1) Collect data from process in time order.
  • Identify presence of special causes.
  • Understand how to calculate control limits
  • Use Minitab to create control charts
  • Understand differences between Sigma_S and Sigma_C.
  • Understand differences between control limits and specifications.
  • Control Charts
  • Minitab Software

Activities:

Tools:

Is Process Stable?

Define Process

Select Measures

Collect & Interpret Data

IsProcessStable?

No

Investigate & Fix Special Causes

Yes

IsProcessCapable?

Improve Process Capability

No

Yes

Develop Control Plan to Maintain Current Process

investigate fix special causes
Purposes:
  • 1) Achieve stability of the measures.
  • 2) Establish permanency of solutions to recurring special causes.
  • 3) Improve procedures and training.
  • Daily Operations
  • 1) Assure consistent operations
  • Investigate reasons for instabilities
  • Compensate process when needed
  • Document root causes of instabilities and compensation effects
  • Long-Term System Changes
  • 1) Implement preventive & corrective actions for special causes
  • 2) Assure stability of raw materials
  • Analyze data for stability problems, e.g., differences among crews, equipment, etc. (Exploratory Data Analysis
  • 1) Control Charts
  • 2) Special Cause Action Plans
  • 3) SOP's
  • FMEA
  • Process Map (Details!), C&E Matrix

Activities:

Tools:

Investigate& Fix Special Causes

Define Process

Select Measures

Collect & Interpret Data

IsProcessStable?

No

Investigate & Fix Special Causes

Yes

IsProcessCapable?

Improve Process Capability

No

Yes

Develop Control Plan to Maintain Current Process

is process capable
Purposes:
  • 1) Determine process adequacy.
  • 2) If not capable, proceed to block on "Improve Process Capability".
  • If capable, proceed to block on "Develop Control Plan to Maintain Current Process".
  • Determine test method adequacy.
  • Compare histogram to customer requirements (specifications).
  • Calculate C-Family (Cp, Cpk) and P-Family (Pp, Ppk) capability indicies.
  • Analytical Labs: Calculate percent variation due to the test, percent gauge R&R and P/T Ratio.
  • 1) Control Charts
  • Histogram
  • Minitab Software

Activities:

Tools:

Is Process Capable?

Define Process

Select Measures

Collect & Interpret Data

IsProcessStable?

No

Investigate & Fix Special Causes

Yes

IsProcessCapable?

Improve Process Capability

No

Yes

Develop Control Plan to Maintain Current Process

improve process capability
Purposes:
  • 1) Determine/Identify fundamental changes to the process to improve capability.
  • 1) Analyze data statistically (Exploratory Data Analysis - EDA)
  • 2) Perform trials of possible fundamental changes to the process.
  • 3) Implement changes (if positive results occur.)
  • 1) Standardization
  • 2) Designed experiments (DOE)
  • 3) Breaking out process steps (Process Map)
  • 4) Isolating sources of variability (ASM/DOE)
  • 5) Separating out common causes (stratification. ASM)
  • Brainstorming
  • Scatter Plots (C&E / ASM)
  • Mintab Software

Activities:

Tools:

Improve Process Capability

Define Process

Select Measures

Collect & Interpret Data

IsProcessStable?

No

Investigate & Fix Special Causes

Yes

IsProcessCapable?

Improve Process Capability

No

Yes

Develop Control Plan to Maintain Current Process

develop control plan to maintain current process
Purposes:
  • 1) To maintain the process improvements that have been made
  • 2) To continually improve the process.
  • 1) Implement control charts, strategies for real-time problem solving, SOP and EPC.
  • Implement systems for summarizing and analyzing data for recurring special causes.
  • Develop documentation package for process.
  • Use results from DOE and data analysis to determine critical inputs to control.
  • 1) Control Charts
  • 2) Cause-Effect Matrix
  • 3) Pareto Charts
  • 4) Brainstorming
  • 5) FMEA
  • SCAP
  • SOP's
  • Control Plan Summary Sheet.XLS
  • Process Map Details

Activities:

Tools:

Develop Control Plan to Maintain Current Process

Define Process

Select Measures

Collect & Interpret Data

IsProcessStable?

No

Investigate & Fix Special Causes

Yes

IsProcessCapable?

Improve Process Capability

No

Yes

Develop Control Plan to Maintain Current Process

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