Organic Chemistry for Nursing students Chapter 1 Introduction into organic chemistry Bonding and isomerism. Chapter 1 Bonding and Isomerism Atoms consist mainly of: Nucleus: (containing Protons and Neutrons) Protons (positive particles, Atomic Number )
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Introduction into organic chemistry
Bonding and isomerism
Bonding and Isomerism
Atoms consist mainly of:
Protons (positive particles, Atomic Number)
Neutrons (Neutral particles)
Protons + Neutrons (Atomic weight)
b) Electrons: negatively charged particles
Example: C (Carbon) has an atomic weight of 12 and an atomic number of 6
They are formed by the transfer of one or more valence electrons from one atom to another
Electropositive atoms: give up electrons and form cations.
Electronegative atoms: accept electrons and form anions
Ionic compounds: are composed of positively charged cationsand negatively charged anions
A covalent bond: is formed when two atoms share one or more electron pairs. A molecule consists of two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds
Bond energy: is the energy necessary to break a mole (6.022 x 1023)of covalent bonds.
Bond length: is the average distance between two covalently bonded atoms
with different elements but also with other carbon atoms.
In case of HCl, the shared electron pair is attracted more toward the chlorine, which therefore is slightly negative (partial negative charge) with respect to the hydrogen.
Hydrocarbons are compounds composed of just hydrogen and carbon atoms.
Line segment structure
Carbon sp3 Hybrid Orbitals