DNA/Genetics Study Guide - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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DNA/Genetics Study Guide

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  1. DNA/Genetics Study Guide Chapter 16- Section 1

  2. Chapter 16- Section 1 • Asexual reproduction is when a single parent • Has offspring identical to the parent • Three types of asexual reproduction are • Budding • Fragmentation • Regeneration • Sexual reproduction is when offspring are formed when • Genetic information from more than 1 parent combines

  3. Chapter 16- Section 1 • Female parent produces sex cells called • eggs • The male parent produces sex cells called • sperm • A zygote is the first cell after fertilization • Human body cells have 46 chromosomes • Meiosis is • The division of 1 cell (46 chromosomes) into 4 cells (23 chromosomes)

  4. Chapter 16- Section 1 • In humans, meiosis is the division of one cell (46 chromosomes) into four cells that have • 23 chromosomes each • Genetics information is found in • genes • Genes are located • On chromosomes • During fertilization, the egg and sperm • Each contribute chromosomes to the zygote

  5. Chapter 16- Section 1 • External fertilization is • When sperm fertilized the eggs outside of the female body • An example of external fertilization is • Clown fish, frogs • Internal fertilization is • Sperm & egg join inside the female body • An example of internal fertilization is • Most mammals

  6. Chapter 16- Section 1 • All mammals reproduce sexually or asexually? • EXPLAIN: • Monotreme: lays eggs/hatch • Marsupial: birth to partially developed live young • Placental mammal: birth to developed live young

  7. DNA/Genetics Study Guide Chapter 16- Section 2

  8. Chapter 16- Section 2 • Pollination happens when • Pollen is moved from the anthers to the stigmas • Pollen contains • sperm • Explain how fertilization occurs in flowering plants…After the pollen lands on the stigma • A tube grows from each pollen grain

  9. Chapter 16- Section 2

  10. Chapter 16- Section 2 • Another word for dormant is • Inactive • Seeds need water, air, and warm temperature to sprout • Three structures that asexual plants use are • Plantlets • Tubers • Runners

  11. DNA/Genetics Study Guide DNA/Genetics Packet

  12. DNA/Genetics Packet • Another name for trait would be • Physical characteristics • Name two traits that giraffes have • Colors / patterns / long necks / long legs • Define gene • A section of DNA on a chromosome that controls a trait • T / F No two living things that are produced by sexual reproduction-except identical twins-have exactly the same genes

  13. DNA/Genetics Packet • What are some traits that make you unique • Hair color, eye color, straight/curly hair, ear lobes, height, blood type • Who is credited with the discovery of the structure of DNA • James Watson and Francis Crick • The ladder of DNA is made of bases. These 4 bases are represented by the letters: A, T, G, and C

  14. DNA/Genetics Packet • Which bases fit together • A and T fit together • G and C fit together • The difference in the sequences of base pairs in the genes allow • The genes to give the cell an almost endless set of instructions for controlling all the characteristics of an individual

  15. DNA/Genetics Packet • Why is the information coded in the DNA of a giraffe so different from the information in your cells • It’s different because the way in which the base pairs are arranged on the rungs of the DNA ladder is different in a giraffe than it is in your body cells

  16. DNA / Genetics Packet

  17. DNA / Genetics Packet

  18. How do organisms inherit traits? • From parents to offspring • Zygote • 23 chromosomes and 23 chromosomes from the mother • The appearance of each child in the family results from the specific combination of genes • Pink snapdragons • Roan calves • Completely hiding the effect of another gene • Capital letters • A gene whose effect is hidden by another gene • Lower case letter

  19. No title! • Purebred • Hybrid • Widow’s peak, rolling tongue • Freckles, red hair • Mutation • Albino

  20. Sexual Determination • X and Y • X • X or Y • Y-carrying • Boy- XY • X-carrying • Girl-XX • X chromosomes • Equal • Y chromosomes • Half • Boys • girls

  21. Stem cell • Protozoa and bacteria • Design and function • Tissues • Organs and systems • Cells that continually reproduce themselves • Marrow • Blood, skin and other organs • Adult stem cells • They can be found in a cluster called blastocyst which is a developing human embryo

  22. Why are scientists interested in stem cells • Leukemia, lymphoma • Healthy stem cells • Either a patient or a donor • Multiply and divide • Healthy, disease-free • Blood and immune • Stem cells • Treat and cure • Diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and cancer

  23. Embryonic stem cells help sick and injured? • Because they are so flexible- they can effectively replace the damaged cells that cause many diseases and injury

  24. Where do we get stem cells for research and medical use? • Umbilical cord • Person’s body • A microscopic, early embryo • Fertility treatments • Nucleus • Unfertilized • Divide and multiply • blastocyst • Somatic cell nuclear transfer

  25. Why are stem cells in the news so much? • Because the cells come from a microscopic human embryo, which is destroyed when the stem cells are extracted

  26. How could stem cells cure disease? • Heart • Left with scar tissue on the heart and often face long term health problems • Produce new heart muscle cells. These are transplanted into the scarred area of the heart and regenerate damaged heart tissue

  27. Solutions? • Produce new insulin producing cells. These cells would be transplanted into the patient where they would produce insulin inside the body