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Unit 9 Chordates. Ch. 30 Nonvertebrate Chordates, Fishes, & Amphibians. What Is a Chordate?. A chordate is an animal that has, for at least some stage of its life, a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; a notochord; pharyngeal pouches; & a tail that extends beyond the anus. What Is a Chordate?.

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Unit 9 chordates

Unit 9 Chordates

Ch. 30 Nonvertebrate Chordates, Fishes, & Amphibians

What is a chordate
What Is a Chordate?

  • A chordate is an animal that has, for at least some stage of its life, a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; a notochord; pharyngeal pouches; & a tail that extends beyond the anus

What is a chordate1
What Is a Chordate?

  • Notochord - a long supporting rod that runs through the body just below the nerve cord

  • Pharyngeal pouches - paired structures in the throat region, used to help in gas exchange

Most chordates are vertebrates
Most Chordates Are Vertebrates

  • Vertebrae - individual segments that make up the backbone

Nonvertebrate chordates
Nonvertebrate Chordates

  • The 2 groups of nonvertebrate chordates are tunicates & lancelets

  • Both are soft-bodied marine organisms

  • Tunicates are often called sea squirts because of the stream of water they eject

Nonvertebrate chordates1
Nonvertebrate Chordates

  • Lancelets are small nonvertebrate chordates that often live with their bodies 1/2 buried in sand

What is a fish
What Is a Fish?

  • Fishes are aquatic vertebrates; most fishes have paired fins, scales, & gills

Evolution of fishes
Evolution of Fishes

  • The evolution of jaws & the evolution of paired fins were important developments during the rise of fishes

Form function in fishes
Form & Function in Fishes

  • Adaptations to aquatic life include various modes of feeding, specialized structures for gas exchange, & paired fins for locomotion

Groups of fishes
Groups of Fishes

  • When you consider their basic internal structure, all living fishes can be classified into 3 groups: jawless fishes, cartilaginous fishes, & bony fishes

Ecology of fishes
Ecology of Fishes

  • Fishes are important source of food for many organisms

What is an amphibian
What Is an Amphibian?

  • An amphibian is a vertebrate that, typically, lives in water as a larva & on land as an adult, breathes with lungs as an adult, has moist skin that contains mucous glands, & lacks scales & claws

Evolution of amphibians
Evolution of Amphibians

  • Early amphibians evolved several adaptations that helped them live at least part of their lives out of water

  • Bones in the limbs of amphibians became stronger, permitting more efficient movement

Evolution of amphibians1
Evolution of Amphibians

  • Lungs & breathing tubes enabled them to breathe air

  • The sternum, or breastbone, formed a bony shield to support & protect internal organs, especially the lungs

Form function in amphibians
Form & Function in Amphibians

  • Tadpoles are filter feeders, adult amphibians are almost entirely carnivorous

Form function in amphibians1
Form & Function in Amphibians

  • An amphibian’s heart has 3 chambers, 2 atria & 1 ventricle

  • Some wastes diffuse across the skin, but kidneys remove most wastes from bloodstream

Form function in amphibians2
Form & Function in Amphibians

  • An amphibian typically begins its life in water, then moves on land as an adult

Groups of amphibians
Groups of Amphibians

  • The 3 groups of amphibians alive today are salamanders, frogs & toads, & caecilians

Ecology of amphibians
Ecology of Amphibians

  • Some amphibians that release toxins have brightly colored bodies

  • The colors & patterns serve as a warning to potential predators