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Chordates

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  1. Chordates Notocord Dorsal hollow nerve cord Gills Postanal tail

  2. Figure 34.0 A snake skeleton exhibits defining characteristic of a vertebrate

  3. Figure 34.2 Chordate characteristics

  4. Figure 34.3 Subphylum Urochordata: a tunicate

  5. Figure 40.8 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals

  6. nerve cord notochord gut oral opening atrial opening (water that passed through pharynx leaves this way) pharynx with gill slits Fig. 27.3, p. 457

  7. Figure 34.4b Subphylum Cephalochordata: the lancelet Branchiostoma

  8. DORSAL, TUBULAR NERVE CORD PHARYNX WITH GILL SLITS TAIL EXTENDING PAST ANUS NOTOCHORD aorta anus epidermis pore of atrial cavity gonad hindgut segmented muscles tentacles around mouth midgut segmented muscles Fig. 27.4, p. 457

  9. Figure 34.5 Early fossil vertebrates: Haikouella (top), Myllokunmingia (bottom)

  10. Figure 34.6 The neural crest, embryonic source of many unique vertebrate characters

  11. Agnathans

  12. Figure 34.8 A hagfish

  13. Tentacles Gill slits (twelve pairs) Mucous glands Gill openings (seven pairs) Fig. 27.7, p. 459

  14. Figure 34.9 A sea lamprey

  15. Figure 34.10 Hypothesis for the evolution of vertebrate jaws

  16. supporting structures Early jawless fish (an agnathan) gill slit Early jawed fish (a placoderm) jaw jaw support spiracle (small gill slit) Modern jawed fish (a shark) jaw Fig. 27.6, p. 458

  17. In-text, p. 463

  18. Chondrichthyes

  19. Figure 34.11 Cartilaginous fishes (class Chondrichthyes): Great white shark (top left), silky shark (top right), southern stingray (bottom left), blue spotted stingray (bottom right)

  20. Fig. 27.8, p. 460

  21. Osteichthyes

  22. dorsal fin caudal fin muscle segments fin supports brain anal fin olfactory bulb pectoral fin (one of two) pelvic fin (one of two) heart liver anus gallbladder urinary bladder kidney stomach swim bladder intestine Fig. 27.9, p. 461

  23. Figure 34.12a Ray-finned fishes (class Actinopterygii): yellow perch

  24. Figure 34.12b Ray-finned fishes (class Actinopterygii): long-snouted sea horse

  25. Figure 34.13 Anatomy of a trout, a representative ray-finned fish

  26. Figure 34.14 A coelocanth (Latimeria), the only extant lobe-finned genus

  27. Figure 34.16 Skeleton of Acanthostega, a Devonian tetrapod fish

  28. Amphibians

  29. Figure 34.17 Amphibian orders: Newt (left), frog (right)

  30. Figure 34.17x1 Frogs

  31. Fig. 27.12, p. 463

  32. Figure 34.18 “Dual life” of a frog (Rana temporaria)

  33. Amniotes • Produce eggs with membranes

  34. Figure 34.19 Amniotic egg

  35. Figure 34.21 Taxonomic classes of amniotes

  36. Reptiles

  37. Figure 34.22 A hatching reptile

  38. olfactory lobe (sense of smell) vertebral column gonad spinal cord forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain regions kidney snout intestine heart unmatched rows of teeth on upper and lower jaws stomach cloaca esophagus liver Fig. 27.13, p. 464

  39. Figure 34.24 Extant reptiles: Desert tortoise (top left), lizard (top right), king snake (bottom left), alligators (bottom right)

  40. venom gland hollow fang Fig. 27.15, p. 466

  41. Figure 34.24ax Sea turtle

  42. ribs of endoskeleton hard shell Fig. 27.15, p. 466

  43. Figure 34.24bx Banded gecko, Coleonyx varigatus

  44. Figure 34.24cx Emerald tree boa

  45. birds

  46. Fig. 27.16b, p. 468

  47. Figure 34.25 Form fits function: the avian wind and feather

  48. skull barbule barb radius shaft pectoral girdle ulna internal structure of bird limb bones humerus pelvic girdle sternum two main flight muscles attached to keel of sternum Fig. 27.17, p. 469

  49. Figure 34.26 A bald eagle in flight

  50. Figure 34.27 Archaeopteryx, a Jurassic bird-reptile