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Snakes. External Anatomy no limbs nostrils no external ears no eyelids scales - of various size depending on body location (for ID - "keeled" or not keeled) anal shield - denotes boundary of trunk & tail (for ID - anal plate divided or not). Internal Anatomy only one lung

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slide2

External Anatomy

no limbs

nostrils

no external ears

no eyelids

scales - of various size depending on body location

(for ID - "keeled" or not keeled)

anal shield - denotes boundary of trunk & tail

(for ID - anal plate divided or not)

slide4

Internal Anatomy

only one lung

no urinary bladder

many vertebrae/ribs

no sternum (breastbone)

very linear digestive tract

slide6

Snakes exhibit the concept of "Reduction"

they have lost several anatomical

  • features typical
  • to other vertebrates:

no ears

no urinary bladder

no limbs

no left lung

no sternum

slide7

Senses

vision - poor

hearing - poor

smell - excellent

forked tongue - Jacobson's organs (roof of mouth)

heat - some snakes can detect body heat = "Pit Vipers"

they have pits or holes around mouth that sense

IR (body heat) (warm blooded prey)

slide8

Killing their food: (all snakes are carnivorous)

1. catch & swallow (garter snake, hognose)

2. squeeze to death "asphyxiate" the constrictors

(boas, pythons, kingsnakes)

3. poison & swallow (rattlesnake, cobra)

slide9

Poisonous Snakes:

cobras, coral snake, sea snakes …….

types of venom:

neurotoxin

hemotoxin

snake bite? antivenom shot

slide10

Illinois' Poisonous snakes:

Water Moccasin (Cottonmouth)

Copperhead

Timber Rattlesnake

Pygmy Rattlesnake

  • (swamp rattler or massasagua)

Cottonmouth

slide16

Skull Adaptations - snakes have a very movable or "Kinetic" jaw

jaw bones unhinge and drop

front ligament - R/L halves

  • thrust forward independently

teeth slant backwards

slide17

Birthing

Oviparous - lay eggs (most snakes)

Ovoviviparous - retain eggs in body - attached to yolk sac

Viviparous - live birth

slide18

Largest Snake ever officially recorded:

an Anaconda, captured & measured in 1944

South America - Orinoco River

37 1/2 feet! estimated to weigh nearly 600 pounds!

slide19

Illinois Non-Venomous Snakes

DeKay’s Brown Snake

Garter Snake

slide21

Black Rat Snake

Prairie King Snake