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American Imperialism. Unit 11: Imperialism & WWI RUSH Mrs. Baker. What is imperialism?. The policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories. The Ages of Imperialism. “Old” Imperialism 1500s – 1700s

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american imperialism

American Imperialism

Unit 11: Imperialism & WWI


Mrs. Baker

what is imperialism
What is imperialism?

The policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories

the ages of imperialism
The Ages of Imperialism
  • “Old” Imperialism
    • 1500s – 1700s
      • England, France, Holland, Portugal, and Spain
      • Wars over colonies
  • “Interlude” Imperialism
    • Late 1700s – Late 1800s
      • Europeans were preoccupied with happenings on the European continent and in the existing European colonies.
        • American Revolution
        • French Revolution
        • Napoleonic Wars
        • Latin American Wars for Interdependence
        • Growth of Nationalism
        • Industrial Revolution
the ages of imperialism1
The Ages of Imperialism
  • “New” Imperialism
    • Beginning circa 1875
    • Renewed race for colonies
    • Spurred by needs created by Industrial Revolution
      • New markets for finished goods
      • New sources of raw materials
    • Nationalism
      • Colonies = economic and political power
      • Social Darwinism = racial justification
what is new imperialism
What is “New” Imperialism?
  • No longer about setting up colonies or exercising direct control over areas.
  • Became largely economic
    • Possession or control of an area for economic gain.
    • Spheres of influence and extraterritoriality rather than colonial influence
america s new imperialism
America’s “New” Imperialism

During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the United States pursued an aggressive policy of expansionism, extending its political and economic influence around the globe.

why did america take an imperialistic approach
Why did America take an Imperialistic approach?
  • Global Competition
  • Desire for military strength
  • Thirst for new markets
  • Belief in Cultural superiority
  • Closing of Frontier
  • Missionary Spirit
global competition
Global Competition
  • European nations colonizing for centuries
  • Competing heavily for Asian territory
    • Especially China
  • Africa became prime target in 20th century
desire for military strength
Desire for military strength
  • Expansionists urged the growth of navy
    • Alfred T. Mahan
      • Reason:
        • Protect foreign trade along shipping routes
      • Required:
        • Naval bases on foreign territory
          • 1887 – Peal Harbor acquired in Hawaii
  • U.S. Navy began to expand in 1880
    • Built steel-hulled warships with steam engines & latest weapons
drive for new markets and raw materials
Drive for new markets and raw materials
  • Advances in technology enabled great production of goods.
    • New markets needed to sell overproduction.
    • Factories needed raw materials as well.
belief in cultural superiority
Belief in cultural superiority

Extension of Social Darwinism

the u s acquires alaska
The U.S. Acquires Alaska
  • William Seward – Secretary of State
  • Purchased from Russia
  • 1867
    • $7.2 million
      • Double the size of Texas
  • 1959 = 49th state
the u s takes hawaii
The U.S. Takes Hawaii
  • American economic interest in Hawaii
    • Sugar plantations
  • U.S. placed protective tariff on imported sugar
    • No more free trade with Hawaiian sugar plantations (owned by U.S. business men)
  • 1893 – American planters lead a successful revolution against the Hawaiian Queen
    • Supported by marines
  • 1898 – Hawaii annexed as U.S. territory
  • 1959 – 50th state
  • U.S. desire to expand into Pacific and Latin America
  • Cuban and Philippine people rebel against Spanish rule
  • Pressure from expansionists and journalist
    • Jingoism – a super patriotism and demand for aggressive action
    • Yellow journalism – Printing of sensational stories and pictures
      • Used to portray the horrors of Cuban abuses at the hands of the Spanish.
      • Stories often exaggerated and distorted events for emotional effect.
immediate causes
Immediate Causes…
  • The De Lome Letter
    • Spanish minister to U.S. Enrique Dupuy de Lome
      • Personal letter stolen & printed in the New York Journal
      • Criticized President McKinley
        • Forced hand of President to declare war.
  • Sinking of the Maine
    • U.S. battleship Maine was stationed in Havana Harbor
    • Ship exploded and sank
    • Killing 266 men
    • Blamed on Spanish
      • Later determined an internal explosion
effects of the spanish american war
Effects of the Spanish-American War
  • December 10, 1898
    • Treaty of Peace signed in Paris
      • U.S. acquisition of the Philippines in return for payment to Spain of $20 million.
      • U.S. acquisition of two Spanish islands:
        • Puerto Rico in Caribbean
        • Guam in Pacific.
      • Recognized Cuban independence
  • U.S. recognized as a world power.
    • Defeats Spain in 4 months.
  • Theodore Roosevelt makes entrance onto national political scene.
ruling puerto rico
Ruling Puerto Rico
  • 1900 – Foraker Act
    • PR became an “unincorporated territory”
    • Citizens of PR, not citizens of U.S.
    • Import duties on PR goods
  • 1901 – 1903  Insular Cases (Island Cases)
    • Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions.
    • Congress had the power to decide these rights.
    • Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal!

Creates a question of powers granted to Puerto Rican citizens?

the issue of puerto rico did u s citizenship follow the flag
The Issue of Puerto Rico: Did U.S. Citizenship follow the flag?
  • Jones Act, 1917
    • Gave full territorial status to PR
    • Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the U.S.
    • PR’s elected their own legislators & governor to enforce local laws
    • PR’s could NOT vote in the U.S. presidential election
    • A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House.
cuba and the united states
Cuba and the United States
  • Teller Amendment (1898) agreed to U.S. giving Cuba its independence.
    • Troops remained in Cuba from 1898 to 1901.
    • Troops would leave if Cuba accepted the terms below:
  • Platt Amendment (1903)
    • Never sign a treaty with a foreign power that impaired its independence
    • Never build up an excessive public debt
    • To permit the United States to intervene in Cuba’s affairs to preserve it independence and maintain law and order.
    • To allow the U.S. to maintain naval bases in Cuba, including one at Guantanamo Bay
  • Made Cuba a U.S. protectorate
filipinos respond to u s control
Filipinos Respond to U.S. Control
  • Philippine-American War
    • Led by Emilio Aguinaldo
      • Believed the U.S. had broken its promise of independence
  • February 1899
    • Rebellion began…
    • It took U.S. 3 years to put down the rebellion.
      • 20,000 Filipinos died
      • 4,000 Americans died
        • At a cost of $400 million
  • Results:
    • U.S. implements a government similar to that of Puerto Rico’s
foreign influence in china
Foreign Influence in China
  • Sphere of Influence
    • Open Door Policy
      • U.S. desired fair access to China along with European powers
      • Europeans did not respond quickly to request
chinese anger rises
Chinese Anger Rises…
  • Boxer Rebellion
    • Resentment began to grow in China as European influence began to spread throughout large Chinese cities.
      • The Chinese formed a secret society to rid China of the “foreign devils”.
        • Known as the Boxers
      • Killed hundreds of missionaries and foreigners.
      • U.S. sent troops into China to aid in putting down the rebellion
at home
At Home…

American Views of Chinese Immigrants

teddy roosevelt and the world
Teddy Roosevelt and the World
  • The Peacemaker
    • President Roosevelt acted as a peace mediator between Russia and Japan
      • Received Noble Peace Prize
  • Tense Relations
    • Gentlemen’s Agreement
      • End segregated schools in San Francisco
      • Japanese restrict immigration to U.S.
the panama canal
The Panama Canal
  • Connects Caribbean territories with Pacific territories
  • In 1901 U.S. creates a treaty in which they will control the canal zone for 99 years.
    • Panama took control of canal on 12.21.99
  • 1904 – 1914
    • Many delays and deaths
      • Mosquitoes
roosevelt s new foreign policy
Roosevelt’s “New” Foreign Policy
  • The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
    • The “Big Stick” Policy
      • Aggressive American involvement policy
        • U.S. = International police power of the Caribbean
  • U.S. would use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America
william howard taft s approach
William Howard Taft’s Approach
  • Dollar Diplomacy
    • U.S. could help maintain orderly societies in other countries by increasing American investment in foreign economies
      • Increased U.S. intervention in foreign affairs
woodrow wilson s missionary diplomacy
Woodrow Wilson ‘s Missionary Diplomacy
  • Moral Diplomacy
    • The U. S. should be the conscience of the world.
    • Spread democracy.
    • Promote peace.
    • Condemn colonialism.