Today’s Goals • Explain what is imperialism, its causes and its effects. • Examine the USA’s first moves in imperialism and how it relates to the causes and consequences • Explore how imperialism would work in a real world situation • Debate imperialism and how it applies to America today?
What is Imperialism? • Stronger nations attempt to build on their empire by dominating weaker nations • Believed that the more territory around the world you controlled the more secure your nation would be • Applied to both economic and military security
Causes of Imperialism • Need for new markets to sell your products • Extractive Economies- economies that extract resources from other areas of the world • Nationalism- extreme belief in the superiority of your country • Missionaries- (“White Man’s Burden”) • Militarism- belief that nations should have a strong army and should not be afraid to use it to further their interests
Consequences (Outcomes) of Imperialism • New Markets (Economic Growth) • Stronger Military (Military Occupation) • Unpopular Abroad • Higher Taxes • Idea of an Superior Anglo-Saxon Culture
America’s First Steps Towards World Power • Admiral Perry opens up Japan- sailed a fleet of warships into Tokyo Bay and convinced Japan to end its isolationism and sign trade agreement with America • Purchase of Alaska from Russia- purchased by Secretary of State William Seward for $7.2 million called “Seward’s Folly” and “Seward’s Icebox” but a few years later both gold and oil was discovered there • Annexation of Hawaii- American sugar and pineapple growers led by Samuel Dole overthrow the Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani and had the US annex the island
Tennessee Imperialism Project • It’s the year 2050 and the United States is no more. Tennessee is now a independent nation and has developed a strong army. • You have been elected to the government council of Tennessee and believe that we need to become an imperial power to increase our the security and power • What ten areas of the USA should be take over and why? Remember the causes of imperialism when you make your decisions
Tennessee Imperialism Project Instructions • Select roles of your group: (use IPads or computers for research) • List your role on your work • One member will list the needs Tennessee might need as a country • Two members will list the resources Tennessee already has to meet those needs and other states that could meet those needs • One member will list possible problems • The group as a whole will develop solutions to the problems • Once the group finishes this section fill out the Tennessee Imperialism project handout following the directions found on it. • Turn in all work when finished
Assignment • Write a 500 word essay that answers the following question ( What role should the United States play in the rest of the World) • Your essay must include the following • The definition of imperialism • A description of the causes and effects of imperialism. • A historical or modern example of American Imperialism based on topics covered that day in class. • An argument pro or con for imperialism based on all the information covered in that day’s class.
Assignment • Define these key terms from Chapter 9 Imperialism Extractive Economy Yellow Press Insurrection Rough Riders Sphere of Influence Open Door Policy Panama Canal “Big Stick” Diplomacy
Yellow Journalism • Sensational news coverage by emphasizing crime and scandal • Mostly used by William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer • Lead to an increase in newspaper sales • Hearst decides US needs to be in a war so he can sell more newspapers
Spanish America War Background • Who? • Spain vs. America Where? • Philippines, Cuba (Spain’s Colonies)
Background: USA Cuba The Philippines
Causes of Spanish American War • Cuban rebels start revolution against Spain for independence • Hearst and other yellow journalists spread stories about cruelty of Spanish soldiers • Hearst published supposed letter from Spain’s ambassador to US that called President McKinley weak and stupid • USS Maine Explosion “You furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war” William Randolph Hearst
USS Maine • USS Maine sent to Cuba to observe the situation • February 15, 1898 USS Maine exploded in Havana Harbor • Hearst reported on front page that Spain had blown up the USS Maine • “Remember the Maine" became the nations rallying cry to declare war on Spain • 1976 US Navy analyzed the sunken ship • Determined that the ship exploded due to a malfunction in the engine
Spanish American War“The Splendid Little War” • War only lasted 8 months • Spain was no match for America (had no modern weapons and navy still used wooden ships) • More Americans died from diseases and food poisoning than died in battle • Deaths in battle: 379 • Deaths from diseases: 5,083 (most happen in Florida)
Major Battles of Spanish American War • Battle of Manila- US destroyed Spanish Pacific fleet and captured the Philippines • Battle of San Juan Hill- Rough Riders led by Teddy Roosevelt captured strategic stronghold in Havana Cuba
Effects of Spanish American War • Spanish American War ended in December 1898 with signing of Treaty of Paris • US becomes a world power • America gains all of Spain’s former colonies including The Philippines and Puerto Rico • Cuba wins independence and US gets control of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba • Spain loses the last remaining parts of its once mighty empire
Philippines Insurrection • United States decided not to give the Philippines their independence after the Spanish American War (argued they were too uncivilized to be free and we needed to teach them) • Filipino nationalists started an insurrection (rebellion) using guerrilla warfare • 5,ooo Americans and 200,000 Filipinos died in the fighting • 1916- Congress allowed the Philippines limited self-government
Open Door Policy • 1899- Britain, France, Germany, and Russia carved up spheres of influence in China • Spheres of Influence- Areas where only a certain country can conduct trade and business in that part of a country • USA issued a statement that said the US would not recognize these spheres of influences • USA wanted an Open Door Policy- any country could conduct trade and business in any part of China • European ignored the US statements but America continue to push for this policy
US and Latin American • US after the Spanish American War looked to take a greater role of power in Central and South America • Considered them part of our “Sphere of Influence” • Roosevelt used “Big Stick Diplomacy” when dealing with Latin America • Believed that America needed a large army to backup its demands of Latin America nations
Roosevelt Corollary • In the early 1900’s European Nations threaten to invade and colonize Latin America nations who had not repaid their debts • US since President Monroe and his Monroe Doctrine had said that the Americas were off limits to future European Colonization • Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary • Reaffirmed the Monroe Doctrine and also said the US was now in charge of the Western Hemisphere
Panama Canal • Roosevelt believed US needed a canal through the Isthmus of Panama to allow the US Navy to travel from one side of the country to the other quickly • Columbia refused to allow the US to build a canal on their land • Roosevelt backed a revolution that created the nation of Panama in return for the right to build the canal
Panama Canal • Took 35,000 workers 6 years to construct the canal • 5,ooo workers died from diseases and construction accidents (especially Malaria) • Cut the travel distance for a ship going from New York to San Francisco by 8,000 miles • US gave control of the canal back to Panama on January 1, 2000
Review Questions • What is the definition of imperialism? • What were the causes of American Imperialism? (five things) • What were the consequences (outcomes) of American Imperialism? (five things) • What were two steps that America took in becoming a world power? • Define yellow journalism.
Problems with Mexico • The Mexican Revolution of the 1910’s caused several problems for America • Mexican rebels would routinely raid border towns in the Southwest US • President Wilson sent an US Army regiment led by General John Pershing into Mexico to stop the raids by rebels • Wilson wanted Pershing to capture the leader of the Mexican rebels Pancho Villa • Increased the strain between the US and Mexico
Assignment: Half a page paragraph • Does the United States have a responsibility to be the world’s police power?
Assignment # 4 • Page 255 Questions 4 and 5 • Page 262 Questions 4 and 5 • Page 267 Question 5