Perceptual Organization. Perfecto Herrera. Introductory sound examples. Perceptual Organization.
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“…Perceptual Organization is central to the key question of perception: how do we make the leap from information detected by our sensory receptors… to our perceptions of the world? This requires not just the detection of information by the organization of that information into veridical percepts.”
“…Perceptual organization is the process by which particular relationships among potentially separate elements (including parts, features, and dimensions) are perceived (selected from alternative relationships) and guide the interpretation of those elements… in sum, how we process sensory information in context.”
Pomerantz & Kubovy, 1986
ASA can be conceptualized as a two-stage process:
For example, when listening to a violin performance, it is the task of auditory scene analysis to group the acoustic events emitted from the physical source (the violin) into a perceptual stream (the mental experience of a violin being played).
Is this the only way of listening? What about “reduced listening”?
Read Pierre Schaeffer
In most listening situations, a mixture of sounds reaches the ears. However we can:
This problem is of great scientific interest, and a solution also has engineering applications
-> The Holy Grial!!!
“Auditory image” of Bach’s Mass in Bm, consisting of voice, violin, cello etc.
How does the auditory system process this image to recover a description of each source?
Bottom Up: Hard wired,
Pre-attentive, Not Learned
Top Down: Plastic,
When is it more difficult to tell if A sounded before B?
(assume fast tempo)
Bregman re-examines the Gestalt principles and proposes the simultaneous and sequential grouping cues as the basic elements of information that help to organize our perception: what, when, where, how
Bregman, A. S. (1990) Auditory scene analysis: the perceptual organisation of sound. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press
But see also:
Wang, D. & Brown, G. (Editors) (2006). Computational Auditory Scene Analysis: Principles, Algorithms and Applications. New York: Wiley.
An Auditory Scene Analysis Approach to Speech Segregation, Wang (2005)
“It is not enough to be able to describe the response of single cells, nor predict the results of psychophysical experiments. Nor is it enough even to write computer programs that perform approximately in the desired way: One has to do all these things at once, and also be very aware of the computational theory...”