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Perceptual Organization. And Optical Illusions. The Constructist View. Brain constructs a perception out of a great many individual sensations Perception = sum of sensations. The Gestalt Veiw. Brain immediately receive sensation as a whole

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perceptual organization

Perceptual Organization

And Optical Illusions

the constructist view
The Constructist View
  • Brain constructs a perception out of a great many individual sensations
  • Perception = sum of sensations
the gestalt veiw
The Gestalt Veiw
  • Brain immediately receive sensation as a whole
  • Focus is on the interaction of the parts – observing how the brain makes sense of things
  • Laws of Perception
slide4

Gestalt Rule #1-Proximity

Grouping nearby figures together.

Columns or Rows?

Columns or Rows?

slide5

Gestalt Rule #2-Similarity

Figures similar to each other are grouped together.

Columns of circles & squares

Rows or Columns or Both

slide6

Gestalt Rule #3-Continuity

Preference for smooth contours/patterns rather than abrupt discontinuous ones.

Do you see line ab and line cd OR do you see line ac and line db?

slide7

Gestalt Rule #4-Closure

Fill in gaps to create whole objects and preferences for closed rather than open objects.

2 brackets

2 brackets

2 brackets

OR

rectangle

rectangle

rectangle

slide8

Gestalt Rule #4-Closure

PAC MEN OR A TRIANGLE?

slide9

Gestalt Rule #5-Connectedness

Perceived linked objects as a single item.

Three separate items, not 6 circles and 3 lines.

slide17

Visual Cliff Experiment

Fear of crawling over cliff indicates the ability to see depth.

slide19

MONOCULAR CUES VS. BINOCULAR CUES

1

2

Fusion: the brain bring two images together.

slide20

BINOCULAR CUES

  • Retinal Disparity:difference between the images provided by the two retinas- when brought together gives sense of depth
  • Convergence: way your eyes rotate inward and outward with changes in distance
slide21

Monocular Cue #1-Relative Size:objects that are known to be the same size will convey depth if one is smaller than the other

Size of retinal image is larger for objects closer.

Size of retinal image is smaller for far objects.

slide22

Monocular Cue #2-Interposition

Blue circle is closer because it overlaps the red circle.

slide23

Monocular Cue #3-Linear Perspective

Parallel lines converge with distance.

slide24

Monocular Cue #4-Aerial Perspective (relative clarity):distant objects tend to look less sharp due to atmosphere

Distant objects appear blue due to scattering of blue light in atmosphere.

slide25

Monocular Cue #5-Relative Brightness / Texture: vivid details become less evident and less apparent

Brighter areas seem closer, dimmer areas seem distant.

slide26

Monocular Cue #6-Relative Height:objects higher are perceived as being more distant

Above the horizon, objects lower seem distant and objects higher seem closer.

Objects higher in the visual field seem farther away.

Objects lower in the visual field seem closer.

http www davidpbrown co uk optical illusions after image html
http://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/optical-illusions/after-image.htmlhttp://www.davidpbrown.co.uk/optical-illusions/after-image.html