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Chapter 9 - Water. Water Cycle Water Budget. The World’s Water. Oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, atmosphere, living things, glaciers, and more… Water is measured by volume. “How much space it takes up.” 97 % is in the oceans. The World’s Water. Less than 3% is fresh!!!

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chapter 9 water

Chapter 9 - Water

Water Cycle

Water Budget

the world s water
The World’s Water
  • Oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, atmosphere, living things, glaciers, and more…
  • Water is measured by volume. “How much space it takes up.”
  • 97 % is in the oceans
the world s water1
The World’s Water
  • Less than 3% is fresh!!!
    • 2/3 is frozen in ice caps
    • Rest is fresh (usable) water
    • Works out to be less than 1/2 of 1%

OCEANS 97.2%



LAKES 0.013%

SOIL 0.006%


RUNNING 0.0002%


where is the fresh water
Where is the fresh water?
  • Tiny part is flowing on the surface of Earth (rivers, streams)
  • 100 times that is stored in lakes, swamps, etc.
  • 50 times that is stored in the ground as groundwater.
water cycle
Water Cycle
  • Again like all matter, water is recycled.
  • Simple water cycle (Magnificent 7):

Evaporation-liquid to gas

Transpiration-liquid to gas in plants

Sublimation-solid to gas

water cycle1
Water Cycle

Condensation–Gas to liquid-clouds

Precipitation-gas to liquid/solid

Runoff-running water on surface

Groundwater-soil moisture, water underground

water budget
Water Budget
  • Compares the input (water you get) and output (water you use) of water in a specific region.
water budget1
Water Budget
  • Controlled by many different climate factors
    • Air temperature
    • Humidity (Season Extremes)
    • Rainfall amount
    • Soil Type
water budget graphs
Water Budget Graphs
  • A comparison between Moisture supply (precip) and Moisture demand (evap)
  • A water budget has 4 parts: usage, recharge, surplus, and deficit
water budget graphs1
Water Budget Graphs
  • Usage – When plants, humans, sun is taking water out of the system.
  • Recharge - When the ground water is being filled back up
water budget graphs2
Water Budget Graphs
  • Surplus - Rainfall is greater than the need. Soil is moist.
  • Deficit - Need for moisture is greater than the rainfall coming into the system. Soil is dry
rocks holding water
Rocks Holding Water??

Porosity – Volume of space in between rocks/soil that can hold water

Permeability – The rate at which water can pass through the pore spaces of rock/soil

rocks holding water2
Rocks Holding Water??
  • Impermeable – Water cannot pass through the pore space.
  • Capillary – Ability of water to “stick” to its surroundings by its surface tension
water table1
Water Table
  • Ground becomes saturated with water. This is the ground water that we have been talking about.
  • Water Table – The top portion of the “zone of groundwater saturation”
water table2
Water Table
  • Zone of Aeration – Water and air mixed with the rocks and soil
  • Capillary fringe – Border between air/water and just water. Right above the water table (pg. 154)
  • Zone of Saturation – Just water in the soil and no air
wells and springs
Wells and Springs
  • Ordinary well - A hole dug or drilled down below the water table. ( water must be pumped out)
  • Spring - Place where the water table is at the surface.
  • Artesian well - A well that is pressurized. (water will not have to be pumped out)
  • Are permeable materials that contain and carry groundwater
    • Best are - Sand, gravel, and porous sandstone

Link to Page About Water Resources