Chapter 9 - Water

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# Chapter 9 - Water - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter 9 - Water. Water Cycle Water Budget. The World’s Water. Oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, atmosphere, living things, glaciers, and more… Water is measured by volume. “How much space it takes up.” 97 % is in the oceans. The World’s Water. Less than 3% is fresh!!!

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### Chapter 9 - Water

Water Cycle

Water Budget

The World’s Water
• Oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, atmosphere, living things, glaciers, and more…
• Water is measured by volume. “How much space it takes up.”
• 97 % is in the oceans
The World’s Water
• Less than 3% is fresh!!!
• 2/3 is frozen in ice caps
• Rest is fresh (usable) water
• Works out to be less than 1/2 of 1%

OCEANS 97.2%

ICE CAPS 2%

GROUNDWATER 0.78%

LAKES 0.013%

SOIL 0.006%

ATMOSPHERE 0.0007%

RUNNING 0.0002%

BIOSPHERE 0.0001%

Where is the fresh water?
• Tiny part is flowing on the surface of Earth (rivers, streams)
• 100 times that is stored in lakes, swamps, etc.
• 50 times that is stored in the ground as groundwater.
Water Cycle
• Again like all matter, water is recycled.
• Simple water cycle (Magnificent 7):

Evaporation-liquid to gas

Transpiration-liquid to gas in plants

Sublimation-solid to gas

Water Cycle

Condensation–Gas to liquid-clouds

Precipitation-gas to liquid/solid

Runoff-running water on surface

Groundwater-soil moisture, water underground

Water Budget
• Compares the input (water you get) and output (water you use) of water in a specific region.
Water Budget
• Controlled by many different climate factors
• Air temperature
• Humidity (Season Extremes)
• Rainfall amount
• Soil Type
Water Budget Graphs
• A comparison between Moisture supply (precip) and Moisture demand (evap)
• A water budget has 4 parts: usage, recharge, surplus, and deficit
Water Budget Graphs
• Usage – When plants, humans, sun is taking water out of the system.
• Recharge - When the ground water is being filled back up
Water Budget Graphs
• Surplus - Rainfall is greater than the need. Soil is moist.
• Deficit - Need for moisture is greater than the rainfall coming into the system. Soil is dry
Rocks Holding Water??

Porosity – Volume of space in between rocks/soil that can hold water

Permeability – The rate at which water can pass through the pore spaces of rock/soil

Rocks Holding Water??
• Impermeable – Water cannot pass through the pore space.
• Capillary – Ability of water to “stick” to its surroundings by its surface tension
Water Table
• Ground becomes saturated with water. This is the ground water that we have been talking about.
• Water Table – The top portion of the “zone of groundwater saturation”
Water Table
• Zone of Aeration – Water and air mixed with the rocks and soil
• Capillary fringe – Border between air/water and just water. Right above the water table (pg. 154)
• Zone of Saturation – Just water in the soil and no air
Wells and Springs
• Ordinary well - A hole dug or drilled down below the water table. ( water must be pumped out)
• Spring - Place where the water table is at the surface.
• Artesian well - A well that is pressurized. (water will not have to be pumped out)
Aquifers
• Are permeable materials that contain and carry groundwater
• Best are - Sand, gravel, and porous sandstone