UNIT 2DIVERSITY IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLSExam 2, Monday, April 4 7-9 PM Next week complete the 2 articles by James Anderson, on the legacy of Brown v. Board of Education Unit 2 will address diversity issues. Why study diversity? Illinois Professional Teaching Standards recognizes the importance of diversity. #3 Diversity • The competent teacher understands how students differ in their approaches to learning and creates instructional opportunities that are adapted to diverse learners. #4 Planning for Instruction • The competent teacher understands instructional planning and designs instruction based upon knowledge of the discipline, students, the community, and curriculum goals.
Illinois 2007 Ethnic/Racial Diversity2.1 million students in Illinois 45% minority Growing Diversity in Illinois and the Nation Right now Illinois Public Students Population consists of: White, Non-Hispanic 54% Total Minority Population 45% LEP students statewide 190,000
Unit 2 Diversity covers a wide range of differences among students. • Low Income Students • Minority Students • Students with Disabilities • Gender and Sexuality • Limited English Proficiency Students
On Thursday March 3 Guest SpeakerProfessor James AndersonHe will give a few opening remarks and then take your questions. Professor Anderson is the author of: • A Tale of Two Browns • The Historical Context for Understanding the Test Score Gap B.A. Stillman College, Sociology M. Ed, UIUC, History and Social Studies Education Ph.D. UIUC, History of Education • Book awards for: The Education of Blacks in the South 1860-1935 Be sure to attend. Exam 1 will be graded and returned to you next week.
FYI Reminder of the grading process in EPS 201 and 202 Your grade? Final Exam or Final Research Paper = 25% Discussion Section = 25% Exam 1= 20%Exam 2 = 20% 5 Lecture Writes 10% P/F Exam 1 point spread: • As = 18-20 points • Bs = 16-17.99 • Cs =14-15.99 • Ds= 12-13-99
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) • Why did Oliver Brown sue on behalf of his daughter Linda for admission to her neighborhood school if as a moderate state (Kansas) Topeka schools both Black and white students were equal in teachers’ salaries, curriculum, and the most basic facilities?
Plessy v. Ferguson Separate and “equal” 1896 until 1954 1860 Jim Crow Laws and customs of second class citizenship Brown 1954 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3LKlvW2LD3s Today Resegregation & Achievement and Opportunity Gaps Improved Graduation Rates But Still Disparities Massive Resistance 1957 – 1970s
PARENTS OF STUDENTS EXCLUDED FROM SCHOOLS TRIED TO CLAIM THEIR RIGHTS In 1885 and 1948 California Courts ruled that minority children cannot be barred from attending public schools • 1885 Chinese Students The California Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to deny “a child of Chinese parents entrance to public schools” based on the 14th Amendment, but it stays silent on “separate but equal”. San Francisco builds separate schools for Chinese students. • 1948 Latino Students Mendez family sues regarding segregated schools. The court ruled that separate but equal violated the equal protection clauses of the 14th amendment and orders California public schools to desegregate.
Practices of School Segregation Based on EthnicityTape v. Hurley (1885)See information sheet on EPS 201/202 Homepage for Summaries of Tape v. Hurley and Mendez v. Westminster • In 1884, Chinese immigrants try to enroll their seven year old daughter Mamie Tape at the Spring Valley School, a San Francisco public school. • San Francisco Board of Education policy prohibited Chinese children from attending the city’s public schools. • The California Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to deny “a child of Chinese parents entrance to public schools”
Practices of School Segregation Based on EthnicityTape v. Hurley (1885)See information sheet on EPS 201/202 Homepage for Summaries of Tape v. Hurley and Mendez v. Westminster • While the court affirms the right of Chinese children to a public education based on the 14th Amendment, it stays silent on “separate but equal”. • The San Francisco Board of Education in response builds a public Chinese school which Mamie Tape is forced to attend.
What is the significance of Mendez vs. Westminster (1948)?Segregation for Latino Students in CaliforniaSee Court Case Information Sheet on our homepage • Mendez family in Westminster in Orange County California in the 1940’s.. • Two schools in Westminster, Hoover Elementary is designated for Latinos and 17th Street Elementary for Whites. • California Federal court rules in favor of Mendez setting the precedent for the ruling in Brown v. Board nine years later.
What is the significance of Mendez vs. Westminster (1948)?Segregation for Latino Students in CaliforniaSee Court Case Information Sheet on our homepage • The court ruled that separate but equal violated the equal protection clauses of the 14th amendment and order California public schools to desegregate. • The ruling is limited only to California. Judge McCormick the presiding judge argues that social equality must be a paramount requisite of American education.
1948 Mendez v. Westminster2011 Medal of Freedom • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eMoAXggpj_0 • Sylvia Mendez 2011 Recipient of Medal of Freedom
ANALYTIC FRAMEWORK(Tozer)PE & Ideology explains why, what, how. IDEOLOGY IDEAS (See Tozer, Chapter 1) Explain and Justify how things work, the social arrangements. Shared beliefs Shared values Groups differ- dominant POLITICAL ECONOMY Institutions and practices in daily life Social (family, religion, organizations, ethnicity/race, customs, etc.) Economic Political (Laws, Local, State, Federal) Schools **Demographics SCHOOLS Policies Administration School Design Community Facilities Safety Curriculum Resources Extra-curricular School culture Funding Teacher Training
IDEOLOGY of 19th & 20th Centuries 1850-1950 Shared beliefs and values of the white majority • Genetic Inferiority Social Darwinism • IQ Testing-Inherited Intelligence, Social Darwinism • Traditions of Racism • White Supremacy • Separate but “equal” • Meritocracy
Political Economy (Institutions and Practices) What forces most affected African Americans in daily life 1865-1954? • LEGAL CONSTITUTION ADVANCES EQUAL RIGHTS 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments Anderson shows that equality of individuals was not protected by the Constitution prior to 14th Amendment. • LEGAL FEDERAL LAW FREE BLACKS TARGETED BY Reconstruction Act of 1867 BUT PROTECTION ended in 1877 with withdrawal of Federal troops. • LEGAL SUPREME COURT 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson “Separate and Unequal” • ORGANIZATIONS KKK (fear) both in the North and South • ACADEMY Science of Social Darwinism, IQ Testing Movement • LEGAL STATE LAWS Jim Crow State and Local Governments (laws and regulations that limited rights, and voting [used literacy tests and poll taxes] for free Black males) • SOCIAL PRACTICES Jim Crow Customs • ECONOMY Limited Economic Power for Blacks Employment Structure: share cropping, low wage jobs, restrictions on work based on race • CLASS High Levels of Poverty among former slaves • SCHOOLS:Poorly funded, limited number of High Schools, 17 states plus D.C. had some form of forced legal segregation
CONSTITUTIONAL EQUALITYEqual access to schools today is based on the 14th Amendment. But why did it fail to protect people prior to Brown? 14th Amendment passed in 1868 Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. WHY?
14th Amendment All persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Answer these questions on the handout. 2 minutes, collaborate • Why did the 14th amendment fail to protect rights of African Americans prior to Brown? • Is it legal for a school district to close its schools and deny students access to public education? Yes No • If the public schools were closed, who do you think would be responsible for getting them reopened (list several responsible stakeholders)?
Why did the 14th amendment fail to protect the rights of African Americans and other minorities? The 14th Amendment interpreted by GOVERNMENT Congress, Federal Courts, States, and localities. States continued to set laws, and the Federal government did not interfere. The 14th amendment was defined narrowly by the courts. Plessy virtually nullified the 14th amendment. The law did not impact social customs. What role did courts play? Supported states until late 1930s. Teachers’ pay, graduate schools (law, education)
After the Civil War14th Amendment andReconstruction Would states continue protection of freed Blacks after the end of Reconstruction? After Reconstruction ended, States curtailed the rights of free blacks. How did the Federal government act? Thomas Nast (1868) cartoon “This is a white man’s government”
Right after the end of the Civil WarFormer slave holding states instituted black codesMississippi Black Codes: "Negroes must make annual contracts for their labor in writing; if they should run away from their tasks, they forfeited their wages for the year. Whenever it was required of them they must present licenses (in a town from the mayor; elsewhere from a member of the board of police of the beat) citing their places of residence and authorizing them to work. Fugitives from labor were to be arrested and carried back to their employers. Five dollars a head and mileage would be allowed such negro catchers. It was made a misdemeanor, punishable with fine or imprisonment, to persuade a freedman to leave his employer, or to feed the runaway. Minors were to be apprenticed, if males until they were twenty-one, if females until eighteen years of age. Such corporal punishment as a father would administer to a child might be inflicted upon apprentices by their masters. Vagrants were to be fined heavily, and if they could not pay the sum, they were to be hired out to service until the claim was satisfied. Negroes might not carry knives or firearms unless they were licensed so to do. It was an offence, to be punished by a fine of $50 and imprisonment for thirty days, to give or sell intoxicating liquors to a negro. When negroes could not pay the fines and costs after legal proceedings, they were to be hired at public outcry by the sheriff to the lowest bidder...."
Social History of Jim Crow Laws Laws and customs of oppression. Anderson, p. 15
NATIONAL PROBLEMLEGAL SCHOOL SEGREGATION in 1950Prohibited (light mix, dots) No legislation (white) Required (dark) Local option (dark mix, slants)
Supreme Court Plessy v. FergusonAnderson, p. 22 • 1896 Plessy boarded a train and sat the in car designated for whites only. The court found that as long as he could ride the train, the state had the right to tell him where to sit, even though accommodations for African American passengers were inferior to the cars for white passengers. The picture is a caricature of African Americans, but not a likeness of Plessy, who was 1/8 African American and light skinned. SUPREME COURT DECISION (5 TO 4) NULLIFIED THE EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE of the 14th Amendment ALLOWED SEPARATE AND UNEQUAL
What were the consequences of Plessy for schools? 1898 STATE COURT OF GEORGIA COMPLICIT in discrimination (Anderson, p. 26) EDUCATIONAL REGRESS Separate and Unequal Courts would not uphold equal schools Cumming v. Richmond (1899) • In 1898, Richmond County closed its only High School in the state for Black students, and used the funds for elementary schools • SUPPORTED HIGH SCHOOLS FOR WHITE STUDENTS Court ruled the closing was not discrimination, but based on trying to best serve the African American community. 1945 first public high school funded in this county in Georgia for African American students since 1898.
The legacy of Plessy v. Ferguson touches several generations of African Americans who do not have access to a high school education. In 1916, Mississippi, South Carolina, Louisiana, and North Carolina had no public high schools for African Americans. True or False? 1945 in the South, 77% African Americans of high school age were not enrolled in high school.
EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIESWERE LIMITED, CONTROLLED BY THE STATES (See Anderson pp. 23, 26, 28-29) In Mississippi: • 1890s To prevent Blacks from voting--poll taxes and literacy tests for voting • 189035% state school funds spent on black students who represented 60% of the school aged population • 1940 REDUCED TO 13% state funds spent on black students who represented 57% of the school aged population • 1940 half of the public schools for black children met in privately owned structures (double taxation) • 1960 80% of Mississippi’s black population had completed less than 9 years of school (Anderson)
WORLD EVENTS THAT MOVEAMERICAN SOCIETY TOWARD CHANGE JUST PRIOR TO BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION World War II A segregated Army After the War, Truman Desegregated Armed Forces. • Black veterans’ held high expectations of freedom after fighting to defend freedom in the world. Integration in Major League Baseball 1947 Cold War with Soviet Union—accused US of hypocrisy
Professor Anderson regards Brown as a WATERSHED moment. The Supreme Court committed to equality. But he also addresses other failures of the Brown decision. Eyes on the Prize Awakenings in 1954-1956 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2sy2r3q7ZfE 8:40 minutes
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) • Why did Oliver Brown sue on behalf of his daughter Linda for admission to her neighborhood school if as a moderate state (Kansas) Topeka schools were equal in teachers’ salaries, curriculum, and the most basic facilities?
BROWN CASEOrganized by NAACPOliver Brown filed suit on behalf of his daughter Linda (3rd Grade) What did segregation mean? Forced busing, forced separation Who were the plaintiffs? Linda Brown and 12 others in Topeka, and similar cases in Delaware, Virginia, South Carolina, Kansas, and District of Columbia.
Forced BusingForced Separation • Linda Brown, 3rd grade, was refused admission to a school 6 blocks from her home. • She makes the walk to the bus stop to attend the segregated Monroe school.
KANSAS WAS A MODERATE STATE Topeka schools were equal in teachers’ salaries, curriculum, and the most basic facilities. OTHER STATES Poorly funded schools in Delaware, Virginia, South Carolina, Kansas, and District of Columbia. NOT SEEKING JUST EQULAIZATION, STRIKE DOWN FORCED SEGREGATION BROWN CASE Linda Brown
Forced segregation in elementary schools, local option in upper grades. FIRST TIME In local court, a social psychologist argued that forced separation implies inferiority of the segregated group, this can impact ego identity and motivation to learn. Topeka, KansasKansas was a moderate state in the 1950s Linda Brown
Education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments.“—Chief Justice Earl Warren, May 1954http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTGHLdr-iak 5 minutes PBS What is the ESSENCE OF THE BROWN DECISION? “We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” Separation is a mark of inferiority
“Girl Like Me” • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YWyI77Yh1Gg • Go to 3:20 Director: Kiri Davis Urban Academy High School
Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments."—Chief Justice Earl Warren, May 1954 Chief Justice Earl Warren, who justified the significance of education in the Brown decision as being "the very foundation of good citizenship." • “… for the policy of separating the races is usually interpreted as denoting the inferiority of the negro group. A sense of inferiority affects the motivation of a child to learn. Segregation with the sanction of law, therefore, has a tendency to [retard] the educational and mental development of negro children and to deprive them of some of the benefits they would receive in a racial[ly] integrated school system. • We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.”
NAACP and Families INTENT was TO END “JIM CROW” custom and laws of segregation and discrimination. Brown overturned Plessy v. Ferguson “separate but equal” law of 1896 Brown ended segregation laws in 17 states and established CONSTITUTIONAL EQUALITY
“AWE andRESPECT”High hopes Assess the meaning of this picture. How was Brown viewed in this Chicago Defender political cartoon in 1954?
Those who opposedBrown advocatedGradualism Claim is: The court is moving too fast. SO: “No job for a race horse” BUT: Had there been steady progress in race relations?
ANOTHER HEADLINE New York Times headline on May 18, 1954: "A Sociological Decision: Court Founded Its Segregation Ruling On Hearts and Minds Rather Than Laws." James Reston commented that "the Court's opinion reads more like an expert paper on sociology." • Expert witness Kenneth Clarke presented evidence of a doll experiment to showed that Black children thought White dolls more preferable than Black dolls. Court ruled separation harms the hearts and minds of the separated group. (Video resource)
DO NOTHING OR MASSIVE RESISTANCE
1957-1958 Massive Resistance State vs. Federal troops http://www.smithsonianglobalsound.org/trackdetail.aspx?itemid=5541
OUTCOME of BROWN: Some schools desegregated, but the school climate was frequently hostile. Some communities resist ---Massive Resistancehttp://www.smithsonianglobalsound.org/trackdetail.aspx?itemid=5541http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HH-eC4LgZT4 1957 Little Rock Nine With protection of Federal Troops, the students attended school in 1957-58.
STATE OF ARKANSAS My name is Terry Roberts,From Little Rock I come.I went down to the schoolhouse,The place they kept me from.I went down to that schoolhouse,And this is what I saw. . .State troopers with steel helmetsIn the State of Arkansas.I went up to the troopersAnd said, "Please let me in."And all their guns were pointedAt the color of my skin.They kept me from that schoolhouseWhere I'd be by law.And that's what they call justiceIn the State of Arkansas. Now his name is Orval Faubus,The governor of the state,He sent his army charging down,Nine kids at the gate.Three hundred National Guard were thereDressed up to fight a war,And that is why I'm late for schoolIn the State of Arkansas.Oh listen, Mr. Governor,And Mr. President, too.Give me that constitutionThat's what you've got to do.Give me that constitutionI ask for nothing more.Yes, that's what I want to studyIn the State of Arkansas.I've traveled this wide world over,Some ups and downs I've saw,But I never knew what misery wasTil I hit old Arkansas. Words: Dave Arkin; Music: State of Arkansas
Hostility and views of inferiority stand in the wayin diverse schools What is the difference between a desegregated and integrated school? DESEGREGATED students go to school together, but minority students are not comfortable, not treated as equal, nor given the same educational opportunities in the curriculum. INTEGRATED (mix of minority and white students and equal treatment and similar success for all students)
1958-1959 Massive Resistance Little Rock HS The next year….. “This school is closed by order of the Federal Government” What is wrong with the message on this sign?
MASSIVE RESISTANCE IN VIRGINIA In Prince Edward County schools for Black students were severely under funded. In 1958 schools were ordered to desegregate. Anderson, 32