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APUSH I. Chapter 8: Reforming American Society. What was the religious movement called from the late 1700s-mid 1800s?. The Second Great Awakening was significant due to its idea of a ‘democratic God,’ through which everyone could reach salvation.

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apush i

APUSH I

Chapter 8:

Reforming American Society

what was the religious movement called from the late 1700s mid 1800s
What was the religious movement called from the late 1700s-mid 1800s?
  • The Second Great Awakening was significant due to its idea of a ‘democratic God,’ through which everyone could reach salvation.
  • This movement sparked several reform efforts throughout the US.
who was known as the father of modern revivalism
Who was known as the ‘Father of Modern Revivalism’?
  • Charles Grandison Finney led huge revivals, or large outdoor gatherings, designed to awaken religious faith through impassioned preaching and prayer.
  • A popular site for revivals was known as the ‘burned-over’ district in upstate NY.
what was transcendentalism
What was transcendentalism?
  • Transcendentalism was a philosophical and literary movement that focused on the individual, imagination, and nature.
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson was a leading transcendentalist.
what were henry david thoreau s significant contributions to history
What were Henry David Thoreau’s significant contributions to history?
  • As a transcendentalist, Thoreau lived for two years alone at Walden Pond, in MA. He emphasized self-reliance, simplicity, and freedom.
  • As such, he advocated civil disobedience, or refusing to obey an unjust law.
what were some of the utopian communities that developed during the mid 1800s
What were some of the utopian communities that developed during the mid-1800s?
  • New Harmony, IN was based on cooperation and equality.
  • Brook Farm, MA was a transcendentalist society.
  • The Shakers were started by Ann Lee, and focused on sharing and equality.

New Harmony, Indiana

what were the areas of reform that dix and mann championed
What were the areas of reform that Dix and Mann championed?
  • Dorothea Dix fought for rehabilitation and prison reform.
  • Horace Mann fought for public education.
what was the effort to outlaw slavery called
What was the effort to outlaw slavery called?
  • The Second Great Awakening focused attention on improving society for all, thus African Americans were drawn into organized churches for the first time.
  • Reform movements, such as abolition, were sparked by the SGA.
what abolitionist called for immediate emancipation
What abolitionist called for immediate emancipation?
  • William Lloyd Garrison was a radical white abolitionist who condemned slavery through The Liberator newspaper.
name the two most famous black abolitionists
Name the two most famous black abolitionists:
  • David Walker advised slaves to fight for their freedom.
  • Frederick Douglass escaped slavery and learned to read and write. He became politically active and started The North Star abolitionist newspaper.
what slave revolt triggered tremendous backlash in the south
What slave revolt triggered tremendous backlash in the South?
  • In 1831, Nat Turner sparked a slave rebellion.
  • On their way to Florida, they attacked four plantations and killed almost 60 whites.
  • As a result, slave codes were enacted, which restricted blacks’ lives even further.
  • In response, abolitionists demanded that slavery be ended. Southern politicians adopted a gag rule, which prohibited debate on the issue.
what idea was considered proper for women during the early 1800s
What idea was considered ‘proper’ for women during the early 1800s?
  • The cult of domesticity relegated women to the home, to focus only on housework and childcare.
  • She was supposed to be self-sacrificing and devoted to her husband and children.
what prompted stanton and mott to organize for women s rights
What prompted Stanton and Mott to organize for women’s rights?
  • After being barred from the World’s Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840 due to their sex, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott began to question whether they should be fighting for black’s rights or for women’s rights.
what social reform did women first begin to turn their attention to
What social reform did women first begin to turn their attention to?
  • Women first began to organize to limit alcohol, or temperance.
  • Due to the negative effect alcohol had on the home, such as neglect and abuse, women launched societies to address alcoholism as a serious problem.
what launched the modern women s rights movement
What launched the modern women’s rights movement?
  • The Seneca Falls Convention was held in NY in 1848.
  • There, women developed a list of grievances, known as the Declaration of Sentiments.
  • They based it on the DOI and demanded legal and social equality.
who began to address the problem of race in the women s movement
Who began to address the problem of race in the women’s movement?
  • Sojourner Truth first focused on abolition, but then got involved with the women’s rights movement.
  • Her speeches, such as a the ‘Ain’t I a Woman’ address, highlighted that women’s rights should include all women, not just white women.
prior to the full development of the industrial revolution how were textiles produced
Prior to the full development of the Industrial Revolution, how were textiles produced?
  • Textiles were put together at home, mainly by women, who were paid per piece. This was known as the cottage industry.
  • As the textile industry became more developed, young girls, like Harriet Hanson Robinson, began leaving home to work full-time in factories.
where did the first mill system develop
Where did the first mill system develop?
  • Young girls traveled to Lowell, MA to live in boarding houses and work in the textile mills.
  • Although the Lowell mills were batter by comparison, typically the conditions were poor, the work repetitious, the wages low, and the machines were dangerous in textile work.
how did workers begin to fight for better working conditions
How did workers begin to fight for better working conditions?
  • Workers formed unions, such as the National Trades’ Union, to demand better conditions and wages.
  • Workers also used strikes, or work stoppages, to pressure employers to provide fair treatment.
  • Increasing immigration from Germany and Ireland created tensions between employers and workers, due to the fact that immigrants would usually work for cheaper wages.
in massachusetts what ssc decision supported workers rights
In Massachusetts, what SSC decision supported workers’ rights?
  • In Commonwealth v. Hunt, the MA SC ruled that workers do have a right to strike.
  • This was in 1842 and marked one of the first confirmations of workers’ rights in the nation.
what areas did ma spark progress
What areas did MA spark progress?
  • The American Revolution
  • Education
  • Transcendentalism
  • Prison Reform
  • Workers’ Rights
  • Abolition