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Assessing Classroom Behaviors

Assessing Classroom Behaviors

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Assessing Classroom Behaviors

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    1. Assessing Classroom Behaviors

    2. Classroom Behaviors Students with behavior disorders are not the only ones who exhibit inappropriate classroom behaviors behavior problems are the most obvious concerns in

    3. Assessing Classroom Behavior student self-concept and self-esteem how well the students accepted by peers students interest and attitudes toward school classroom learning environment and its effectiveness students ability to behave properly

    4. Assessment Questions What is the student's current status in classroom behavior and in social-emotional development? Is there evidence of a severe conduct problem? What are the characteristics of the classroom learning environment? What is a student's current status and self-concept and acceptance by peers? What are the student's current interest and attitudes toward school and learning?

    5. Design instructional program to improve classroom behavior should be goal may include formal norm-referenced measures but the informal assessment should be stressed

    6. Considerations in assessment of classroom behavior classroom behaviors are broad terms that encompass a range of nonacademic school behaviors this can be the students conduct within a classroom setting, responses to school rules, interpersonal relationships with teachers of the students, and self-concept and attitude toward school

    7. Purposes classroom behaviors & social emotional development are assessed to gain information (current ability to meet nonacademic demands)

    8. IDEA 1997 i) The term emotional disturbance refers to a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long time and to a marked degree; that adversely affects a students educational performance (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or other health factors (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances

    9. IDEA cont. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or school problems (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems ii) The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.

    10. IDEA definition excludes students with social maladjustments, which refers to a student whose behavior conflicts with society in general but is an adaptive, often peer-approved response to their environment (i.e. gangs) Implies choice vs. students with ED/BD result of disability.

    11. Problems with identification: Lack of precise definitions of mental health and normal behavior Differences among conceptual models Difficulties in measuring emotions and behavior Relationships b/t emotional and behavioral disorder and other disabilities Differences in the professionals who diagnose and serve children and youths

    12. 2 major approaches in assessing emotional disorders first approach teachers, instructional aides, parents, and others knowledgeable to provide information about the students current behavioral status to determine whether the students behaviors perceived as inappropriate in their environment ( rating scales, checklists, interviews, and questionnaires) second approach relies on direct observation of the student in the environment where experiencing difficulty most often both are used

    13. Issues and Trends emotional disturbance vs. behavioral disorders behavioral disorders is preferred by many because it indicates the behaviors can be changed emotional disturbance is a more traditional terms and is the one used by federal law the definition of the disability itself is controversial insert information about why that's difficult what is appropriate for one age may not be appropriate for another normal play among boys may be labeled aggressive among girls

    14. Current Practices special education assessment usually begins with the questioning of informants on page 291 table 10-1 they talk about the different theories of behavioral disorders table 10-2 on page 292 formal measurements of classroom behavior and related concerns

    15. sources of information about classroom behavior school records discipline and attendance records observations of former teachers past services the student current classroom behavior current attitudes and perceptions teachers observations of current behavior characteristics of the learning environment peer's peer acceptance interaction parents observations of current behavior characteristics of the home environment

    16. Behavior Rating Scales and Checklists Behavior Rating Profile 2nd Ed. page 295 profile scores can compare mother, father, student, several teachers, school, home, peer Other Measures That Use Informants Behavior Evaluations Scale-2 disorders described in the federal law on five subscales learning problems, interpersonal difficulties, inappropriate behavior, unhappiness/depression, and physical symptoms/fears

    17. Comparison Of Behavior Rating Scales And Checklists most of these measures are designed for school-age populations (elementary) purposes assessment of personality rather than behavior disorders Burk's Behavior Rating Scales

    18. Direct Observation And Functional Assessment direct measures are needed to substantiate existence of behavior problems, many screening measures are too general for program planning observation can be used to study any type of behavior appropriate or inappropriate, academic or social, at home or at school

    19. Direct Observation the first step is to decide which behavior is to be study describe behavior to be observed select a measurement system set up the data collection system select a data reporting system carry out the observation

    20. Anecdotal Observations Allows the teacher to become acquainted with an individual and his/her behavior in the natural environment Written narrative describing critical incidents Confirm existence of problem Reveal conditions that promote a behavior Indicate events that affect the behavior Identify positive behaviors that would substitute for the problem behavior

    21. Event Recording Has the advantage over anecdotal recording of providing quantitative data. Counting the number of occurrences of target behavior during a specified time Not a good measure for recording non-discrete behaviors of long duration (tantrums)

    22. Duration Recording The total time that a target behavior occurs during a given time. Stopwatch is needed Works well with non-discrete events such as tantrums or crying.

    23. Partial Interval Recording Allows recording more than one behavior during one time segment. Dividing time into brief intervals and observing we\whether a target behavior occurs during that interval. Difficult to use in classroom b/c it is continuous

    24. Momentary Time Sampling Involves recording the occurrence or nonoccurrence of one or more target behaviors at the end of the period (5 minutes) Does not require continuous monitoring Preferred by teachers/observers Proves to be a reliable record method at the end of a week

    25. Reporting Methods Percentages Number of occurrences Graphs (line or bar chart)

    26. Functional Assessment informal assessment technique includes direct observation tied directly to program planning designed to gather the information necessary to develop positive behavior support plans to improve the classroom functioning of students with inappropriate behaviors steps describing the behavior identifying factors influencing behavior generating a hypothesis program planning

    27. FA Assumptions Challenging behavior is related to context in which it occurs Behaviors are influenced by the events or consequences that follow them Inappropriate behaviors will increase if rewarded and decrease if punished. Inappropriate behaviors are influenced by the circumstances or context in which it occurs Challenging behaviors serves a function for the individual

    28. ABC Recording Antecedents visual, auditory or tactile cues present in a situation that determine the occurrence and direction of a particular behavior Behavior Consequences positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, or punishment

    29. Functional Analysis Involves manipulation of those events believed to influence the inappropriate behavior and the systematic observance of the impact on the occurrence of behavior. Develop a behavior intervention plan (BIP)

    30. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity attention deficit refers to difficulties in focusing and sustaining attention hyperactivity is successive activity age of the student and the situation for which the behaviors displays has to be considered disorders are quite common CEC in 1992 estimated that 3 to 5 % of school-age children

    31. not considered a separate disability under federal law, ADD and ADHD were added by 1997 IDEA amendments to the list of conditions covered in the category of other health impairments

    32. DSM-IV criteria: the condition must exist for at least six months, began before age 7, appear in more than one environment, and cause clinically significant distress or impairments in social, academic, or occupational functioning several of the behaviors described under the DSM-IV are also caused by factors other than ADHD or ADD

    33. CEC 1992 claims 10 out of the 14 of the behaviors typically associated with ADD are typical in students who are acquiring a second language label ADHD should be applied only when behaviors of hyperactivity, distractibility, and or impulsivity are both chronic and pervasive

    34. American Psychiatric Association (1994) identified several characteristics related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The first to the characteristics relates to inattention and the second to hyperactivity-impulsivity. Three classifications are possible: ADHD, combined type (if the individual meets criteria for both inattentive and hyperactivity-impulsivity); ADHD, predominantly inattentive type (if the individual meets criteria for inattentive but not hyperactivity-impulsivity); and ADHD, predominantly hyperactive-impulsivity type (if the individual meets criteria for hyperactivity-impulsivity but not inattention).

    35. Inattention 6 (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least six months, to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities, and often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions)

    36. Inattention (cont.) often has difficulties organizing task or activities often avoids, dislikes or is reluctant to engage in task that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework) often loses things necessary for task or activities (for example avoids, school assignments, pencils, books) is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli is often forgetful in daily activities

    37. Hyperactivity-impulsivity six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level

    38. hyperactivity often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescence or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness) often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly is often on the go or often acts as if driven by a motor often talk excessively

    39. impulsivity often blurts out answers before questions have been completed often has difficulty waiting turn often interrupts or intrudes on others (conversations or games) Perhaps the best-known measure of ADHD is the Conners Rating Scales Revised page 307

    40. Self-Concept And Peer Acceptance have poor self-concept perceive themselves as failures in academic pursuits and may have difficulty in interacting with classmates

    41. self-concept both formal and informal devices are available Piers-Harris Childrens Self-Concept Scale page 309 The way I feel about myself My classmates make fun of me student answers yes no Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale and the Self-Esteem Index are promising 150 statements such as I often feel dumb I enjoy life student answers strongly agree, agree, disagree, or strongly disagree

    42. Peer Acceptance general education students perceptions of individuals who have school performance problems peer attitudes towards students with disabilities in general not particular student particular student is the perceived by his or her classmates a sociometric technique is used

    43. the most common is a nomination method students nominate peers they would most or lease like to associate with in some activity there is a measure from this included on the Behavior Rating Profiles 2nd Ed. sociometric instruments determine how well individual students are accepted by their peers should always be confidential student should be encouraged not to share responses with others page 313 figure 10-4 picture rating schedule

    44. School Attitudes And Interests related to how well students perform in school interests and negative attitudes can contribute to school performance problems

    45. Attitudes Toward School toward particular subjects or specific classrooms are important the majority of assessment tools are informal include interviews, questionnaires, and checklist interviews or questionnaires would pinpoint student's views about school

    46. another technique is to using incomplete sentences for me, school is . learning new things in school makes the feel . Interest preferences among subjects may prove useful in academic counseling knowledge of leisure activities can help students especially those reluctant figure 10-5 is an attitude survey for secondary students series of open-ended questions about student preferences

    47. Learning Environment behavioral expectations classroom roles questions to consider in classroom management

    48. Instructional Demands student-teacher interactions physical environment sound, convenience, student traffic patterns, teacher mobility, flexibility, density,

    49. ANSWERING ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS type of procedures nature of the assessment task documentation of classroom behavior