eisenhower s adventures in the cold war
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Eisenhower ’ s Adventures in the Cold War. Your task today…. This is a timeline of foreign affairs events and policies of the Eisenhower administration. Next week, the test you will take on Ike will include a number of items from this PowerPoint.

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your task today
Your task today…
  • This is a timeline of foreign affairs events and policies of the Eisenhower administration. Next week, the test you will take on Ike will include a number of items from this PowerPoint.
  • Your job is to open this PowerPoint presentation and carefully read through each slide. If you have a question or need clarification on a particular slide, it is your job to do Google searches to educate yourself further. If you have additional questions, you must ask them tomorrow. Also, there are several slides that have questions (in YELLOW text) or blank spots left open for you to fill- make sure you do so- you may be called to the front of the room to show what you came up with.
eisenhower ends the korean war finally
Eisenhower ends The Korean War (finally)
  • Soviet leader Joseph Stalin dies in March, 1953 creating lots of uncertainty in the Communist world- will the Soviet Union be there to support North Korea and other nations?
  • Eisenhower’s seizes on this uncertainty (and threatens to use nuclear weapons) to kick-start negotiations; his diplomacy leads to a ceasefire
  • July 23, 1953:
  • An agreement made to return POWs
  • US-South Korea Security Treaty (1953): U.S. troops remain stationed in South Korea to help them defend themselves (to this day)
john foster dulles and the new look foreign policy
John Foster Dulles and “The New Look” foreign policy
  • Ike’s Secretary of State
  • “The New Look” relied on:
    • A smaller army
    • A greater reliance on nuclear weapons, bombers, missiles
    • Use nuclear deterrence instead of fighting small limited wars
    • Threaten the Soviet Union with “massive retaliation” with nukes in order to maintain the peace
    • “Mutual Assured Destruction” MAD
    • Avoid smaller wars and conflicts like Korea; keep the peace through the threat of overwhelming force and destruction
    • No more wars to enforce Truman’s “containment” policy
  • Result:
the h bomb
The H-Bomb
  • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/
  • Why was the “Castle Bravo” test in 1954 infamous?
  • How much more powerful were H-bombs than atomic bombs?
  • How were they different in design?
  • Where were H-bomb tests conducted?
eisenhower and dulles diplomatic strategy
Eisenhower and Dulles’ diplomatic strategy
  • Eisenhower and Dulles sign treaties with 43 countries, surrounding the Soviet Union with military bases in friendly countries
  • “A ring around the Soviet Union”
  • Examples:
a thaw in the cold war
A thaw in the Cold War?
  • Ike believed that friendlier relations were possible after Stalin’s death
  • At the same time the U.S. builds up nuclear arsenal, he works for disarmament
  • “Atoms for Peace” plan, 1953:
  • Geneva Summit, 1955: Eisenhower meets Nikita Khruschev
  • “Open Skies” plan, 1955:
  • This temporary improvement ends when the Soviet army invades Hungary, 1956
the growing power of the cia
The Growing Power of the CIA
  • The CIA was seen by many as the “good way” to fight Communism: avoid direct conflict and war
  • The agency was created by 1947 National Security Act
  • Conducted spying and “covert ops” in other countries
  • Given permission to spend unlimited amounts of money in 1949 without Congressional supervision
  • The CIA bribed overseas politicians, hired secret armies, and plotted assassinations in “developing nations” to stop Communism and support our allies; read this for more incredible details:
  • http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/jun/22/usa.simontisdall
the cia in iran
The CIA in Iran
  • The oil-rich nation of Iran was ruled by an elected Parliament and a Shah (king).
  • The oil fields were controlled by British and American oil companies
  • The newly elected Prime Minister, Mohammad Mossadeg nationalizes the oil and kicks out foreign companies!
  • What was Operation AJAX (1953)? What was the end result?
mossadeq vs the cia
Mossadeq vs. The CIA

Prime Minister Mossadeq and CIA agent Kermit Roosevelt… yes that same family!

  • French Indochina had been a colony since the 1880s
  • Communist leader Ho Chi Minh fights for independence from the French in the years after WWII.
  • U.S. paid for 75% of France’s military effort
  • French surrendered at Dienbienphu on May 7, 1954
  • 1954 Geneva Peace Accords: Vietnam divided into two countries at 17th parallel; elections later to be held in 1956 to reunify the country
  • Ho Chi Minh: leader of North Vietnam
the domino theory takes hold
The Domino Theory takes hold.
  • Eisenhower and his advisors believed that if one Asian nation falls to Communism, they all will!
  • The CIA installs Ngo Dinh Diem as President of South Vietnam; gives him billions of dollars and American military advisors
  • The National Liberation Front (NLF) organizes to defeat Diem
ngo dinh diem the cia s chosen leader for south vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem: The CIA’s chosen leader for South Vietnam
  • Conduct a Google search for details about Diem’s life. Why was he selected to be the leader of South Vietnam? What was his religion, and why was this problematic?
the suez crisis 1956
The Suez Crisis- 1956
  • Egypt declared itself independent in 1953
  • Gen. Gamal Abdel Nasser demanded that Britain give up the Suez Canal
  • 75% of Western Europe’s oil traveled through the Canal; $25 million in tolls every year
  • Eisenhower offered Nasser a loan to build a dam, but he made an arms deal with the Soviets instead, and then seized the canal
suez crisis cont
Suez Crisis (cont.)
  • October, 1956: Britain, Israel, and France invaded Egypt; the Soviet Union threatened to intervene- very close to nuclear war!
  • The UN and US condemn the three allies, they pull out, and the canal was given to Egypt
  • Eisenhower Doctrine:
  • For more info:
  • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/5195068.stm
the space race begins
The Space Race Begins!!!
  • Soviets launch 184 pound satellite Sputnik into orbit on October 4, 1957
  • “A technological Pearl Harbor!”
  • Sputnik II launched on November 3, 1957… with a dog!!!
  • NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) created in 1958
  • Massive spending on education, emphasis on science, math, foreign languages
  • 1/3 of all scientists on college campuses were doing work for the Pentagon
  • * Find a picture of Sputnik and put it over here ->
the kitchen debate
The Kitchen Debate
  • When did this event (pictured to the right) take place? Who are these two men, and what were they arguing about?
revolution in cuba january 1 1959
Revolution in Cuba: January 1, 1959
  • Who is this man? What happened in Cuba, and why was it problematic for America?
the u 2 incident may 1 1960
The U-2 Incident: May 1, 1960
  • What happened to this airplane, and what was its historical significance?
ike s farewell address
Ike’s Farewell Address
  • What did he warn about in this famous farewell address?
  • Was he right to be concerned?
  • http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/dwightdeisenhowerfarewell.html