Crime Scene Investigation Forensic Analysis Course
Important Elements • Preserving the crime scene • Recording the crime scene • Searching the scene • Collection and packaging of evidence • Crime scene safety
Crime Scene Environment • Other police officers (including general duties, investigative, specialist and administrative areas) • The judicial system including; legal practitioner, (prosecution and defense lawyers) judges and courts (including civil, coronial, criminal and appeal Courts) • Forensic scientists (including specialist laboratories and experts) • Forensic medical practicioners (including pathologists, psychologists and psychiatrists) • General community often represented through juries, including those involved in specific incidents (victims, suspects, witnesses) and expectations shaped by media reporting of actual cases, fictional material, (books, magazines, television and movies).
Role of CSI Crime scene investigators should be effective managers: • At the scene of the crime or incident • Of the processing of physical evidence collected from the scene • Of the investigative process as it relates to physical evidence • Of the final presentation of physical evidence at court
Securing the Scene • Use an entry other than that taken by the suspect • Establish the path taken by other persons first on the scene • Consider the loss of trace evidence on entry throughout your examination, (e.g.. shoe/foot impressions on the floor) • Reassess Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) issues • Establish the extent of the scene and additional assistance that may be required • Establish an entry and exit path for the Senior Investigating Officer and specialists to access the scene, if necessary
Processing the Scene • Surveying the crime scene • Photographing and searching the crime scene • Mapping and measuring the crime scene • Recording and documenting the location of physical evidence at the crime scene • Searching for fingerprints and other physical evidence
Recording the Scene • Administrative Worksheet • Narrative Description • Photographic Log • Diagram/Sketch • Evidence Recovery Log • Latent Print Lift Log • Identification, Collection and Preservation of Evidence
Searching • Tool marks • Controlled substances and medicinal preparations • Questioned documents • Latent fingerprints • Bloodstains • Seminal stains • Hair • Fibers • Glass • Paint • Flammable liquids • Firearms evidence
Crime Scene Photography • The overview, a general shot with features to identify the location • The location of any significant evidence, usually a mid-range shot • The evidence detail, perhaps with close-up procedures
Continuity and Records Accurate records (of the scene and item) Detailed labeling, appropriate and sealed packaging Accurate official records and logs･Secure storage of the item(s) Restricted movement of the item(s) Full documentation of any subsequent movement It is preferable that the crime scene investigator is the only link in the chain of custody of an item. Where this is not possible, movement and handling of the item should be fully documented and kept to a minimum.
Collection of Evidence Ensure fragile evidence is collected first e.g. latent fingerprints Then collect trace evidence e.g. blood and fiber Finally, collect larger items Cross contamination Biodegradation Packaging Labeling
Vehicles • 1.Initial examination • 2.Written documentation of vehicle in original state • 3.Systematic photographic and documentation, starting with the exterior, taken from each side, corners, front, rear, tag, including any decals, damage or custom accessories. The interior of the vehicle should be photographed from the front drivers area; from each side with the doors open, the ignition area, the dash, the glove box, the instrument panel, the rear seat area, and the trunk area • 4.An organized section-by-section search should be conducted to find items of evidence not immediately obvious during the initial examination
Vehicles • 5.Other items of evidence located during the search should be annotated with evidence markers and photographed to record location and relationship of any evidence found • 6.Collection of evidence, beginning with the most fragile evidence (trace evidence), evidence easily lost, or susceptible to damage or loss through handling or weather conditions • 7.Mechanical processing for any latent fingerprints. Common sense areas should be searched around the sides, hood, trunk, roof support post, and windows of the exterior of the vehicle. Inside, the door handles, rear view mirror, seat belt buckles, windows, should also be searched • 8.Relevant control samples should be acquired, including glass samples, fiber samples for upholstery and carpet, chipped paint, and wiring for comparison with electronic components, like CD players and telephones that may have been stolen from the vehicle.
Vehicle Marks • Tire impressions • Wheel marks (used to determine the direction of vehicle movement) • Soil disturbances • Skid marks (provide information on vehicle speed)
Human Remains • Position of the body • Description and state of clothing (is it partially removed, stained, tangled or twisted?) • Describe the location, intensity, size, and direction of flow of any staining if possible. • Type of stain (blood-like, semen, dirt, vomit, feces, urine or some other fluid) • Any visible damage to the clothing and body･Description of bloodstains (spots, spatter or smearing and directionality) • Appearance of evidence removal (has the body been washed or blood cleaned from the body?) • Estimated amounts of blood (has staining penetrated layers, carpeting or other surfaces, is it superficial?)