Unit 6 Learning. 11/13/13. How do we learn?. Brainstorm, what are some ways we learn new information? Do we learn similarly to any other animals? Does everybody learn the same way?. How we Learn. Learning: A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience.
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Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936)
Extinction: the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
Generalization: the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning and not to others (light or sound).
Courtesy of John Garcia
Even humans can develop classically to conditioned nausea.
Shaping: reinforcers guide behavior toward desired behavior with successive approximations
Reinforcer: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
Primary reinforcer: an innately reinforcer stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
Ex. – Reinforce or reward the behavior after a set number or x many times that an action or behavior is demonstrated.
Interval Version – having to do with the passage of time.
Ex. – Reinforce the participant after a set number or x period of time that the behavior is displayed.Schedules of Reinforcement
FORM OF REWARD
INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE
EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR
Leads to average and irregular performance
Fast extinction of behavior
Reward on fixed time basis
Reward tied to specific number of responses
Moderately fast extinction of behavior
Leads quickly to very high and stable performance
Reward given after varying periods of time
Leads to moderately high and stable performance
Slow extinction of behavior
Reward given for some behaviors
Leads to very high performance
Very slow extinction of behavior
After every 10 math problems that I complete, I allow myself a 5 minute break.
I look over my notes every night because I never know how much time will go by before my next pop quiz.
When hunting season comes around, sometimes I’ll spend all day sitting in the woods waiting to get a shot at a big buck. It’s worth it though when I get a nice 10 point.
Today in Psychology class we were talking about Schedules of Reinforcement and everyone was eagerly raising their hands and participating. Miranda raised her hand a couple of times and was eventually called on.
VRFI, VI, FR, or VR?
Evidence of cognitive processes during operant learning comes from rats during a maze exploration in which they navigate the maze without an obvious reward. Rats seem to develop cognitive maps, or mental representations, of the layout of the maze (environment).
Cognitive map: a mental representation of the layout of ones environment
Such cognitive maps are based on latent learning, which becomes apparent when an incentive is given (Tolman & Honzik, 1930).
Intrinsic Motivation:Thedesire to perform a behavior for its own sake.
Extrinsic Motivation:Thedesire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments.
Skinner argued that behaviors were shaped by external influences instead of inner thoughts and feelings. Critics argued that Skinner dehumanized people by neglecting their free will.
Falk/ Photo Researchers, Inc.
Skinner introduced the concept of teaching machines that shape learning in small steps and provide reinforcements for correct rewards.
7. Emily has a spelling test every Friday. She usually does well and gets a star sticker.
8. Steve’s a big gambling man. He plays the slot machines all day hoping for a big win.
Snakes get hungry at certain times of the day. They might watch any number of prey go by before they decide to strike.
Mr. Bertani receives a salary paycheck every 2 weeks. (Miss Suter doesn’t ).
Christina works at a tanning salon. For every 2 bottles of lotion she sells, she gets 1 dollar in commission.
Mike is trying to study for his upcoming Psychology quiz. He reads five pages, then takes a break. He resumes reading and takes another break after he has completed 5 more pages.
FRFI, VI, FR, or VR?
14. Kylie is a business girl who works in the big city. Her boss is busy, so he only checks her work periodically.
15. Mark is a lawyer who owns his own practice. His customers makes payments at irregular times.
16. Jessica is a dental assistant and gets a raise every year at the same time and never in between.
17. Andrew works at a GM factory and is in charge of attaching 3 parts. After he gets his parts attached, he gets some free time before the next car moves down the line.
18. Brittany is a telemarketer trying to sell life insurance. After so many calls, someone will eventually buy.
18. VRFI, VI, FR, or VR?