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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS MEXICO PART 2: SEVERE WINDSTORMS. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . MEXICO. NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN MEXICO. FLOODS. GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES. SEVERE WINDSTORMS.
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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSMEXICOPART 2: SEVERE WINDSTORMS Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN MEXICO FLOODS GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES SEVERE WINDSTORMS EARTHQUAKES HIGH BENEFIT/COST BY BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENT VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters Planet Earth’s atmospheric-hydrospheric-lithospheric interactions create SEVERE WINDSTORMS
SEVERE WINDSTORMS AFFECT BOTH COASTS OF MEXICO ANNUALLY TROPICAL STORMS AND HURRICANES BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER LANDFALL ON BOTH THE GULF AND THE PACIFIC COASTS OFTEN CAUSE DISASTERS
HIGH POTENTIAL LOSS EXPOSURES IN A SEVERE WINDSTORM Entire communities; People, property, infrastructure, business enterprise, government centers, crops, wildlife, and natural resources.
DEAN HEADED TOWARD MEXICO AND GULF OF MEXICO • Hurricane Dean Intensified as it passed through the warmer Caribbean waters, making a projected landfall in Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula as a category 5 storm, a rare level, a very dangerous possibility.
CUBA PREPARED FOR DEAN’S ARRIVAL ON AUGUST 19 • After earlier warnings by the US National Hurricane Center issued warnings for Cuba and other Caribbean island nations, the Cuban Government began evacuating 50,000 residents from three central and eastern provinces to shelters.
PREPARATION BY NASA FOR DEAN’S ARRIVAL • Fearing that Hurricane Dean might threaten the Houston home of Mission Control, NASA ordered space shuttle Endeavor that was docked at the International Space Station to return. • Endeavor undocked on Sunday in order to arrive on Tuesday, August 21, before the projected arrival of Hurricane Dean.
PREPARATION IN TEXAS FOR DEAN’S ARRIVAL • Remembering the lessons learned in 2005 from the evacuation-traffic-jams before the arrival of Hurricane Rita, Texas Governor Rick Perry began full-scale preparations for Hurricane Dean days ahead. • Fuel trucks were dispatched to coastal communities to facilitate evacuations, andother resources were positioned along evacuation routes.
PREPARATION BY PRESIDENT BUSH FOR DEAN’S ARRIVAL • President Bush took a unique, pre-emptive strategic step of preparedness for Hurricane Dean on Saturday, August 18thby signing a pre-landfall disaster declaration, allowing the Federal Government to move in people, equipment, and supplies immediately if Hurricane Dean struck the south Texas-Mexico border, as was expected.
COORDINATED PLANNING BY USA, MEXICO, AND CANADA • President Bush met with the leaders of Mexico and Canada on Monday, August 20th to facilitate coordinated planning of mutual assistance before the arrival of Hurricane Dean.
ADVANCE PREPARTIONS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO • The Gulf has 4,000 multi-million dollar oil and gas platforms and facilities that were at risk from hurricane Dean’s strong winds and the accompanying high waves that flooded oil refineries, toppled oil rigs, and cut pipelines in 2004 and 2005.
ADVANCE PREPARTIONS OF FACILITIES AT RISK IN THE GULF • Pemex, Mexico’s oil company, began evacuating 13,500 workers from its oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico on Monday, August 20. • Petroleos Mexicanos evacuated all 18,000 offshore workers and shut down production rigs on the Bay of Campeche, resulting in a huge loss of revenue from 2.7 million barrels of oil and 2.6 billion cubic feet of natural gas each day.
HURRICANE DEAN MAKES LANDFALL: AUGUST 21 • Hurricane Dean made landfall at Majahual, Mexico as a category 5 storm with winds of 275 kn/hr (165 mi/hr).
HURRICANE DEAN’S LANDFALL: AUGUST 21 • Hurricane Dean’s landfall at Majahual, a port popular with cruise liners, was “good luck” for the people of Mexico. • This location, a sparsely populated coastline, had already been evacuated. • None of the major resorts took a direct hit.
IMPACTS IN MAJAHUAL • Hundreds of homes collapsed in Mexico’s second busiest cruise ship destination. • Steel girders collapsed and wooden structures splintered from the force of the wind. • About one-half the concrete dock washed away in the storm surge.
A THREAT TO THE MAYANS: AUGUST 21 • Hurricane Dean threatened the Yucatan’s mist vulnerable people — the Mayans--- who have not benefited from tourism or oil production, and who live simple lives, in wooden slat houses susceptible to wind damage and in low-lying areas prone to flooding.
MAYAN COMMUNITIES SEVERELY IMPACTED • Mexico’s Mayan communities have survived many damaging storms and centuries of oppression, but surviving Hurricane Dean was one of their greatest challenges ever, because- - - • The greatest impacts were NOT the thousands of destroyed Mayan homes, but the downed fruit-bearing trees and the destroyed corn crops they needed for daily existence.
THE SECOND LANDFALL IN MEXICO: AUGUST 22 • Hurricane Dean crossed the Bay of Campeche and made a second landfall as a category 2 storm on Wednesday, August 22. • Landfall was at Tecolutla, a fishing town in the state of Veracruz on the Central Mexican coast, about 660 km (400 mi) from the border with Texas.
STORM SURGE AND HEAVY RAINFALL: AUGUST 22 • Hurricane Dean’s storm surge flooded Ciuidad del Carmen, a town of 120,000, with waist deep sea water. • Heavy rainfall accompanying Dean, now a category 1 storm, caused rivers to rise rapidly in a region that had experienced flooding and landslides in 1999.
THE END OF HURRICANE DEAN • As Hurricane Dean diminished to a tropical storm, its impacts in Mexico and South Texas were mainly flooding and landslides associated with and exacerbated by the runoff from the heavy rainfall accompanying the storm.
INSURED LOSSES FOR DEAN • Caribbean island nations (Martinique, St Lucia, Dominica, Haiti, Barbados, Dominican Republic, especially Jamaica, and Cuba) were hit hard, with insured losses estimated at $ 1.5 to $ 3 billion. • Insured losses in Mexico were estimated at $300 million.
THE FUTURE AFTER DEAN • Mexico began its reconstruction and recovery program, with the future of the Mayan community a major unrsolved concern. • Caribbean island nations began recovery and reconstruction programs
A DISASTER CAN HAPPENWHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF A SEVERE WINDSTORM INTERACT WITH MEXICO’S COMMUNITIES
HAZARDS OF A SEVERE WINDSTORM (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS) • WIND FIELD [CAT 1 (55 mph) TO CAT 5+ (155 mph or greater)] • DEBRIS • STORM SURGE/FLOODS • HEAVY PRECIPITATION/FLOODS • LANDSLIDES (MUDFLOWS) • COSTAL EROSION
CAUSES OF DAMAGE WIND PENETRATING BUILDING ENVELOPE UPLIFT OF ROOF SYSTEM FLYING DEBRIS STORM SURGE HURRICANES IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN “DISASTER LABORATORIES” SITING PROBLEMS FLOODING AND LANDSLIDES
THE ALTERNATIVE TO A SEVERE WINDSTORM DISASTER ISSEVERE WINDSTORM DISASTER RESILIENCE
WINDSTORM HAZARDS • PEOPLE & BLDGS. • VULNERABILITY • LOCATION • PREPAREDNESS • PROTECTION • EARLY WARNING • EMERGENCY RESPONSE • RECOVERY and • RECONSTRUCTION SEVERE WINDSTORM RISK POLICY OPTIONS ACCEPTABLE RISK RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK GOAL: SEVERE WIND-STORM DISASTER RESILIENCE MEXICO’S COMMUNITIES DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS