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The Parts of a Sentence. 512-520. Sentence or Fragment?. A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a COMPLETE THOUGHT. A thought is complete when it MAKES SENSE on its own. Examples of Sentences. That DORK left his Jersey Shore DVDs at his crib.

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sentence or fragment
Sentence or Fragment?
  • A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a COMPLETE THOUGHT.
  • A thought is complete when it MAKES SENSE on its own.
examples of sentences
Examples of Sentences
  • That DORK left his Jersey Shore DVDs at his crib.
  • For how many years was CLARENCE in jail?
  • What extraordinary COURAGE it takes for a man to get married!
  • Wait!
    • [The subject of this last one is understood to be YOU.]
sentence fragments
Sentence Fragments
  • A sentence fragment is a word or group of words that MAY BE capitalized and punctuated as a sentence…
  • but does not contain BOTH a subject AND a verb OR does not express a complete thought.
sentence fragment examples
Sentence Fragment Examples
  • Fragment: Athletes representing 8 schools.
  • Sentence: Athletes representing 8 schools competed in the event.
  • Fragment or Sentence? Between the towering mountain ridge and the wide ocean only a few miles away.
exercise 1 514
Exercise 1 (514)
  • 01. I would like …
  • 02. The town is…
  • 03. They have been…
  • 04. He is…
  • 05. C
  • 06. C
  • 07. The movie was better…
  • 08. C
  • 09. …children were…
  • 10. C
the subject and predicate
The Subject and Predicate
  • Sentences consist of two basic parts: subjects and predicates.
  • The subject tells WHOM or WHAT the sentence is about.
  • The predicate tells SOMETHING ABOUT the subject.
  • Note: 1) the sub. or pred. may be ONE WORD or more, and 2) the sub. may appear before, after or BETWEEN PARTS of the pred.
subject predicate examples
Subject/Predicate Examples
  • Everyone || watched The 13th Warrior.
      • S. P.
  • Throughout the day, || Joe || robbed six banks.
      • P. S. P.
simple complex subject
Simple/Complex Subject
  • Simple Subject = main word (or word group) that tells WHOM or WHAT the sentence is about.
    • The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank.
  • Complete Subject = the simple subject + any words (or word groups) used to modify the simple subject.
    • The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank.
more simple complex subject examples
More simple/complex subject examples
  • Simple: Many scenes in the movie were violent.
  • Complex: Many scenes in the movie were violent.
  • Simple: The Burger King in Hanover burned down.
  • Complex: The Burger King in Hanover burned down.
    • Note: Burger King is a simple subject – 2 words, but one thing.
simple complex predicate
Simple/Complex Predicate
  • Simple Predicate (VERB) = main word (or word group) that tells something about the subject.
    • The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank.
  • Complete Predicate = verb and all the words used to modify the verb and COMPLETE its meaning.
    • The coach of our curling team was arrested for robbing a bank.
more simple complex predicate examples
More simple/complex predicate examples
  • Simple: Have you tried platypus meat?
  • Complex: Have you tried platypus meat?
  • Simple: They chased me after the robbery.
  • Complex: They chased me after the robbery.
compound subject
Compound Subject
  • Compound Subject = 2+ subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the SAME VERB.
  • HanoverandHortonare two small towns.
  • New York, Detroit, Philadelphia, orArizonawill win the World Series.
    • Note: these are not separate sentences.
compound verb
Compound Verb
  • Compound Verb = 2+ verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the SAME SUBJECT.
  • Werobbed a bank andstashed the money in our backyard.
  • Theystole my identity, took my car andskipped the country.
    • Note: these are not separate sentences.
difference between compound sub verb and compound sentence
Difference between compound sub/verb and compound sentence.
  • Compound Sentence = 2+ independent clauses (these ARE separate sentences)
  • CMPD VRB: Joe and I like baseball but hate hockey.
  • CMPD SNT: Joe and I like baseball, but we hate hockey.
    • Note: cmpdsnts need a COMMA and a CONJUNCTION to join them.
how to find the subject of a sentence
How to find the subject of a sentence
  • Easiest way: find the verb, then ask WHO? or WHAT? in front of it.
  • The cat in the hat stole my car.
    • What stole my car? The cat.
  • In their eyes shone happiness.
    • What shone? Happiness shone.
subjects in commands requests
Subjects in commands/requests
  • The subject of a command or request is always understood to be YOU, although it may not appear in the sentence.
  • [You] Read your book and turn your homework in on time.
  • Get up off my grill!
subjects are never in prepositional phrases
Subjects are never in prepositional phrases
  • Never.
  • Never.
  • A group of students from the high school were in the parade.
  • A group [of students] [from the high school] were in the parade.
  • Out of the stillness came the loud sound of laughter.
  • [Out of the stillness] came the loud sound [of laughter].
subjects in questions
Subjects in questions
  • The subject in a question usually FOLLOWS the verb or part of the verb.
  • Didyoucut my car in half again?
  • When wereyou inside the Bermuda Triangle?
here there where never subjects
Here/There/Where – never subjects
  • They are adverbs. (They tell or ask where.)
  • Here is the money I stole.
    • What is here? The money is here.
  • There they are!
    • What are there? They are there.
  • Where’s my money, Brian!?
    • What’s where? My money is where?
exercise 2 519
Exercise 2 (519)
  • 01. men, women, children LIVED
  • 02. position GAVE
  • 03. anyone DID REFUSE
  • 04. group WAS
  • 05. people FLED
  • 06. they COULD TRAIN
  • 07. lessons WERE TAUGHT
  • 08. ninja SNEAKED, STRUCK
  • 09. warriors GAINED, WERE FEARED
  • 10. [you] HAND
complements
Complements
  • Quite often we need more than just a subject and a verb for a COMPLETE THOUGHT.
  • They sent.
    • They sent us a fruitcake.
  • The students seem.
    • The students seem well educated.
the direct object
The Direct Object
  • Direct Object (DO) = Noun or Pronoun that receives the action of an action verb.
  • To find the DO, ask “WHOM?” or “WHAT?” after a transitive verb.
  • If there’s an answer, it’s the direct object. (There isn’t always a DO.)
  • I forgot my homework.
    • “I forgot what?” I forgot my homework.
  • The dog bit Joe and me, and we got rabies.
    • “The dog bit whom?” The dog bit Joe and me.
    • “We got what?” We got rabies.
the indirect object
The Indirect Object
  • The Indirect Object (IO) appears BEFORE the DO and receives the DO.
  • To whom / to what (for whom / for what)
  • Mr. Bulgrien showed our class the movie.
    • He showed what? The movie (DO)
    • He showed it to whom? Our class (IO)
  • Give me my money!
    • Give what? The money (DO)
    • Give it to whom? Me (IO)
  • Tell Joe and me the truth. IO: ____________
indirect object important note
Indirect Object – important note
  • Don’t confuse an indirect object (IO) with an object of a preposition (OP)
  • If it says “to ___” or “for ___” then it’s an OP.
  • Give me all of your money.
    • IO
  • Give all of your money to me.
    • OP
the objective complement
The Objective Complement
  • Objective Complement (OC) = word or word group that IDENTIFIES or modifies the DO.
  • The seniors elected Irvingpresident.
    • They elected whom? Irving (DO)
    • See how “president” identifies the DO? “President” is an OC.
more objective complements
More Objective Complements
  • Only a few verbs can have OCs. Just “consider” and “make” and other verbs that can be REPLACED by “consider” and “make.”
  • They call him their boss.
    • They [consider] him their boss.
    • They consider whom? Him (DO) = identified: their boss (OC)
  • Paint my room red.
    • [Make] my room red.
    • Make what? My room (DO) = modified: red (OC) room.
exercise 3 524
Exercise 3 (524)
  • 01. appeal DO
  • 02. tons DO
  • 03. homes DO
  • 04. meal DO; special OC
  • 05. candles DO
  • 06. hobbyists IO; pastime DO
  • 07. you IO; steps DO
  • 08. candles IO; scent DO
  • 09. wax DO; colors OC
  • 10. mine DO; blue & white OC
the subject complement
The Subject Complement
  • Subject Complement (SC) = word or word group in the predicate that identifies or describes the subject. It is linked to the subject by a LINKING VERB.
  • Two types of SCs:
  • Predicate Nominative (PN)
  • Predicate Adjective (PA)
predicate nominative pn
Predicate Nominative (PN)
  • A predicate nominative is a word or word group in the predicate that identifies the SUBJECT or refers to it. They can be NOUNS, pronouns or a group of words that function as a NOUN.
  • PNs are linked to the subject by a LINKING verb.
    • remember the linking verbs:
    • am, is, ARE, was, WERE, BE, being, been
    • and any verbs that make sense when replaced by the ABOVE verbs.
pn examples
PN examples
  • Subjects in bold || PNs underlined
  • You are students.
    • “students” is linked to subject, identifies it
  • Of all the dancers, Marcelo was the most experienced one.
    • Pronoun “one” linked to/identifies subject
  • Some day Joe will be a criminal.
  • The two candidates for class treasurer are Iriving and I.
predicate adjective pa
Predicate Adjective (PA)
  • A predicate Adjective is an adjective in the predicate that modifies the SUBJECT or refers to it.
  • PAs are linked to the subject by a LINKING verb.
  • Not sure if it’s a PA? Try putting it right in front of the subject. Does it modify it?
pa examples
PA examples
  • Subjects in bold || PAs underlined
  • The ocean is calm.
    • calm ocean – so it’s an ADJ.
  • Does that year-old milk taste good?
  • That car didn’t look phat.
  • Most freshmen are noisy, creepy and annoying.
one more note about pn pa
One more note about PN/PA
  • For emphasis, sometimes we place these before the subject and verb.
  • PN: What an outstanding teacherMr. Flint was!
  • PA: I was shocked at how talentedshe is!
exercise 4 526
Exercise 4 (526)
  • 01. IS species (PN)
  • 02. FEEL concerned (PA)
  • 03. WAS discoverer (PN)
  • 04. IS author (PN)
  • 05. SOUNDED beautiful (PA)
  • 06. GREW restless (PA)
  • 07. WAS active (PA)
  • 08. IS icy (PA)
  • 09. DOES TASTE spicy (PA)
  • 10. IS work (PN)
review a 526
Review A (526)
  • 01. Both … cooking
  • 02. have … preparation
  • 03. me
  • 04. developed
  • 05. favorites
  • 06. traces
  • 07. is, was born
  • 08. thick, spicy
  • 09. lobsters
  • 10. morsels
we classify sentences according to purpose
We classify sentences according to purpose
  • There are four types of sentences:
    • Declarative
    • Interrogative
    • Imperative
    • Exclamatory
declarative
Declarative
  • Makes a STATEMENT
  • Ends in a PERIOD
  • “I’m planning to cut his car in half again.”
  • “My dog would make a good platypus hunter.”
interrogative
Interrogative
  • Asks a QUESTION
  • Ends with a QUESTION mark
  • “Pardon me, but do you have any Grey Poupon?”
  • “What is your favorite color?”
imperative
Imperative
  • Makes a request or gives a COMMAND
  • Most imperative sentences end with a PERIOD, but strong commands end with an EXCLAMATION POINT
  • The subject of an imperative sentence is always “YOU.”
  • “Hand me my platypus rifle.”
  • “Shut your noise hole!”
exclamatory
Exclamatory
  • Shows excitement or expresses STRONG FEELING
  • Ends with an EXCLAMATION POINT
  • “Oh, snap! You got burned, Dawg!”
  • “Wow! What a hottie!”
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