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Syntax. LI 2013 Nathalie F. Martin. Grammatical vs Ungrammatical. The Linguist’s Point of View on Grammar. Review: Explain the linguist’s point of view on grammar? Written versus spoken Formal versus informal (or even slang) Right or wrong?.

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syntax

Syntax

LI 2013 Nathalie F. Martin

the linguist s point of view on grammar
The Linguist’s Point of View on Grammar
  • Review:
    • Explain the linguist’s point of view on grammar?
  • Written versus spoken
  • Formal versus informal (or even slang)
  • Right or wrong?
grammatical or ungrammatical
Grammatical or Ungrammatical?

1. The boy found the ball

2. The boy found quickly

3. The boy found in the house

4. The boy found the ball in the house

5. Disa slept the baby

6. Disa slept soundly

Find: Transitive verb (with object)

Sleep: Intransitive verb (no object)

syntax1
Syntax

Definition

Constituents (of a sentence)

Constituency tests

definition syntax
Definition: Syntax
  • A child’s definition 
    • “All the money collected at church from sinners”

(Taken from Laughing Matters, by Phil Callaway)

  • Syntax: The analysis of _______

_______

sentence structure

devaporize

vaporize

de-

vapor

-ize

Sentence Structure
  • Recall from morphology that words are not simply strings of morphemes. They have a hierarchical structure that we can represent with trees.
sentence structure1
Sentence Structure
  • Similarly, sentences do not only consist of a _____ _______. They also have an internal _______ _______.
  • The structural elements of sentences are called syntactic ___________.
    • Def: The parts into which a sentence can be ____________.
    • A word or a group of words that functions as a _____ _____.
    • _______ _______ of sentence structure.

http://webdeptos.uma.es/filifa/personal/amoreno/teaching/ling/syntax.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constituent_(linguistics)

constituents
Constituents
  • The following sentence is not just a string of eleven words:Bill and John ate all the cookies yesterday at the park.
  • It is made up of four basic constituents:Bill and Johnate all the cookiesyesterdayat the park.
constituency tests
Constituency tests
  • I can demonstrate that these are constituents by ___________ and ____________ tests.
  • Only constituents can be moved to another part of the sentence; only constituents can be substituted for in a sentence.
test 1 movement
Test 1: Movement

Bill and Johnate all the cookiesyesterdayat the park.

  • We can move at the park:

Bill and Johnate all the cookies at the parkyesterday.

  • We can’t move at the:

*Bill and Johnate all the cookiesat the yesterdaypark.

What are the other possible sentences?

test 2 substitution 1
Test 2: Substitution (1)
  • Bill and Johnate all the cookies at the parkyesterday.
  • Substitute theyfor Bill and John:
  • Theyate all the cookies at the parkyesterday.
substitution 2
Substitution (2)
  • Bill and Johnate all the cookies at the parkyesterday.
  • Substitute did sofor ate all the cookies:
  • Bill and Johndid soat the parkyesterday.
substitution 3
Substitution (3)
  • Bill and Johnate all the cookies at the parkyesterday.
  • Substitute therefor at the park:
  • Bill and Johnate all the cookies thereyesterday.
substitution 4
Substitution (4)
  • Bill and Johnate all the cookies at the parkyesterday.
  • Substitute thenfor yesterday:
  • Bill and Johnate all the cookies at the parkthen.
substitution 5
Substitution (5)
  • Can’t substitute across _____________ :
  • Bill and Johnate all the cookies at the parkyesterday.
  • Substitute did sofor ate all the:
  • *Bill and Johndid so cookies at the parkyesterday.
substitution 6
Substitution (6)
  • Can’t substitute across ___________ :
  • Bill and Johnate all the cookies at the parkyesterday.
  • Substitute themfor cookies at:
  • *Bill and Johnate all the themthe parkyesterday.
constituents are phrases
Constituents are Phrases
  • all the cookies is a _______ _______. We can substitute any noun phrase for it:
  • Theyatecookiesyesterday.
  • Theyatesome cookiesyesterday.
  • Theyatethe cookies left over from dinner last weekyesterday.
  • Theyatethe cookies that their mother told them several times not to eatyesterday.
phrase structure
Phrase Structure

Phrase Types

Phrase Structure

let s try it out
Let’sTryit Out

How would you divide this sentence?

  • The children put the brand new toys in the box.
    • Definition of “phrases”:
      • ___________ linguistic objects with their own ___________ and _______ _______
from phrase structure to sentence structure
From Phrase Structure to Sentence Structure
  • We form sentences by combining words into phrasal constituents, phrases into larger constituents, and these constituents into sentences.
phrase types
Phrase types
  • Noun Phrase (NP): Functions like a _______
    • Ex.
  • Verb Phrase (VP): Functions like a _______
    • Ex:
  • Adjective Phrase (AP): Functions like an _______
    • Ex:
  • Prepositional Phrase (PP): Starts with _______ [in, on, with, etc.]
    • Ex:
phrase structure rules
Phrase Structure Rules
  • NP  (Det) N (PP)
  • PP  P NP

The bus in the yard

NP

The bus (NP)

Det

N

Det

N

PP

The

bus

P

NP

Det

N

The

bus

in

the

yard

phrase structure rules1
Phrase Structure Rules
  • VP  V (NP) (PP)
  • S  NP (Aux) VP

took the money from the bank

VP

took the money (VP)

V

NP

V

NP

PP

Det

N

Det

N

P

NP

took

the

money

Det

N

took

the

money

from

the

bank

head types
Head Types
  • In Noun Phrase (NP):
    • Functions like a noun, head is _______ (N)
    • Ex. The car, a clever student
  • In Verb Phrase (VP):
    • Functions like a verb, head is _______(V)
    • Ex: study hard, play the guitar
  • In Adjective Phrase (AP):
    • Functions like an adjective, head is _______(Adj)
    • Ex: very tall, quite certain
  • In Prepositional Phrase (PP):
    • Head is ____________ (Prep) [in, on, with, etc.]
    • Ex:in the class, above the earth
phrase structure1
Phrase Structure

Phrase (XP)

{Specifier}Head (X){Complement(s)}

  • The specifier_______ _______ of the head. The complements_______ _______ about the head.
  • All phrases have the same basic structure:
specifier types
Specifier types
  • In NPs, specifiers are _______ like a, the, this, that, these, those.
  • In VPs, specifiers are _______ like always, never, seldom, often.
  • In APs, specifiers are _________ like very, quite, too, so.
  • In PPs, specifiers are _______ like almost, nearly.
complement types
Complement types
  • In NPs, complements can be ____: cabin by the lake, book on the table.
  • In VPs, complements can be ____ or ____ : ate the cookies, ate at the park.
  • In APs, complements can be ____ : happy about the new job.
  • In PPs, complements are ____ : at the park.
sentence structure2
Sentence structure
  • The basic English sentence structure is:

S

NP (____ ____) VP (____ ____)

  • For this course, we will use either IP (for “inflection”) found in your textbook or S (for sentence)
simple sentence
Simple Sentence
  • The NP and VP might only contain ____ ____(no specifiers or complements):

S

NPVP

NV

Billswam

more complex sentence 1
More complex sentence 1

S

NPVP

Det N V

The boyswam

more complex sentence 2
More complex sentence 2

S

NPVP

Det NV PP

Prep NP

Det N

The boyswam in the stream

more complex sentence 3
More complex sentence 3

S

NPVP

Det N PPVPP

PrepNPPrepNP

NDetN

The boy fromOhioswaminthe stream

example with brackets
Examplewithbrackets

How would you devide this sentence into phrases?

  • The children put the toys in the box
the main phrase structure rules
The Main Phrase Structure Rules

1. S  NP VP

2. NP  (Det) (AP) N (PP)

3. VP  (Aux) V (NP)

4. PP  (Deg) P (NP)

slide38

Example (1)

The children put the toy in the box

S

NP

VP

Det

N

V

NP

PP

Det

N

P

NP

Det

N

The

children

put

the

toy

in

the

box

o grady p 181
O’Grady, p. 181
  • How to build trees structures:
draw the structure trees for the following sentences
Draw the structure trees for the following sentences

Draw the tree structure of the following sentences:

  • Those guests should leave.
  • Maria never ate a brownie.
  • That shelf will fall.
  • The glass broke.
  • The student lost the debate.
  • The manager may offer a raise.

Question # 5 (a–f) p. 187 (O’Grady)

inflection
« Inflection »

The tense of the sentence

inflection1
« Inflection »
  • Abstract category dubbed « I » or « Infl » for ________ that indicates the ______ of the sentence.
  • Links together the NP and the VP
  • « I » is considered the ________ ________ with the VP as it’s ________ and the NP (subject) as it’s ________ .
slide43

Example (1)

The old tree will sway in the wind

S

Aux

NP

VP

Det

Adj

N

V

PP

P

NP

Det

N

Past (- Pst)

The

old

tree

sway

will

in

the

wind

slide44

Example (2)

The old tree swayed in the wind

S

Aux

NP

VP

Det

Adj

N

V

PP

P

NP

Det

N

Past (+ Pst)

The

old

tree

swayed

in

the

wind

structural ambiguity
Structural Ambiguity

Structural Ambiguity

ambiguity a word phrase or sentence with multiple meanings
Ambiguity: a word, phrase or sentence with multiple meanings

Synthetic buffalo hides (NP)

Synthetic buffalo hides (NP)

Synthetic buffalo hides

Synthetic buffalo hides

Buffalo hides that are synthetic.

Hides of synthetic buffalo.

ambiguities often lead to humorous results
Ambiguities often lead to humorous results
  • For sale: an antique desk suitable for lady with thick legs and large drawers.

 what does “thick legs and large drawers” refer to?

The desk or the lady?

structural ambiguity 1 the boy saw the man with the telescope
Structural Ambiguity (1)The boy saw the man with the telescope

S

NP

Aux

VP

Det

N

V

NP

PP

Det

N

P

NP

Det

N

Past (-Pst)

The

boy

saw

the

man

with

the

telescope

slide49

Structural Ambiguity (2)The boy saw the man with the telescope

S

NP

Aux

VP

Det

NP

N

V

Det

N

PP

P

NP

Det

N

Past (-Pst)

The

boy

saw

the

man

with

the

telescope

moves
Moves

Declarative – Interrogative

Yes-no questions

Do insertion

WhMovement

from one to the other
From One to The Other
  • Look atthese sentences:
  • What do weneed to do to transformitfrom one sentence structure to the other?
declarative interrogative
Declarative – Interrogative
  • Move the auxiliary to the ______of the ______.

The boy will leave.

S

Will the boy leave?

S

NP

Aux

VP

Aux

NP

VP

Det

N

V

Det

N

V

The

boy

will

leave

Will

the

boy

leave

The surface structure

The deep structure

the wh movement
The Wh Movement
  • Surface structure: Which car should the man repair?
  • Deep structure:

S

NP

Aux

VP

Det

NP

N

V

Det

N

The

man

should

repair

which

car

some additional stuctures
Some additional Stuctures

Coordination

Modifiers

Passived

some additional structures
SomeAdditional Structures
  • Coordination
  • Modifiers
  • Passived