Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Yahya Gino Kurama, Associate Professor Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Yahya Gino Kurama, Associate Professor Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences

Yahya Gino Kurama, Associate Professor Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences

0 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Yahya Gino Kurama, Associate Professor Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Shakes and Quakes A Structural Engineer's View Yahya Gino Kurama, Associate Professor Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences University of Notre Dame Introduction to Engineering Program University of Notre Dame July 16, 2004

  2. STRUCTURES • Structure: “any assemblage of materials that is intended to sustain loads” • Nearly every plant and animal, and nearly all works of man have to sustain forces without breaking, so practically everything is a structure of one type or another.

  3. Buildings Dams Tunnels Domes Bridges Civil Structures Civil Structures areBIG!

  4. How Old is Structural Engineering? Man fears Time, yet Time fears the Pyramids Arab proverb Great Pyramids Sphinx

  5. Structural Loads • Gravity loads (self weight, people, furniture, etc.) • Earth and water pressure • Dynamic wind load effects • Dynamic occupant effects • Earthquakes Structures respond to these dynamic loads, moving, swaying, and …. SOMETIMES FAILING!

  6. Wind Excited Structures

  7. Human Excited Structures

  8. Human Excited Structures

  9. Human Excited Structures

  10. Earthquake Excited Structures

  11. BUILDING STRUCTURES • Masonry • Reinforced concrete frame • Steel frame • Reinforced concrete wall

  12. Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Pantheon, Rome San Pietro Citta’ del Vaticano, Rome Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence St. Paul’s Cathedral, London Can You Recognize These Masonry Structures?

  13. BRICKS, STONES, and MORTAR What are Masonry Structures Made of?

  14. And ... Under an Earthquake ... THEY BREAK!!

  15. And They Break!

  16. Empire State Building New York City Marina City Chicago Transamerica Building San Francisco John Hancock Building Chicago Sears Tower Chicago Where are These Frame Structures?

  17. How Do We Build Them?

  18. Resting After a Hard Day's Work

  19. AUGUST 17, 1999 IZMIT EARTHQUAKE (M 7.4)

  20. SEISMIC ACTIVITY IN THE REGION

  21. San Andreas Fault California

  22. RIGHT-LATERAL STRIKE-SLIP FAULT (> 1400 km) The North Anatolian Fault E W

  23. HORIZONTAL SLIP ALONG THE NAF 2 meters (6.6 feet)

  24. HORIZONTAL SLIP ALONG THE NAF

  25. HORIZONTAL SLIP ALONG THE NAF

  26. VERTICAL SLIP ALONG THE NAF 1.7 meters (5.6 feet)

  27. VERTICAL SLIP ALONG THE NAF

  28. REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

  29. REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

  30. WHICH FLOOR WOULD YOU RATHER LIVE IN?

  31. SOFT/WEAK STORY COLLAPSE

  32. REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

  33. REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

  34. HYGOKEN-NAMBU, JAPAN, 1994

  35. CHI-CHI, TAIWAN, 1999

  36. NORTHRIDGE, U.S., 1994

  37. NORTHRIDGE, U.S., 1994

  38. MAIN PROBLEMS • Poor detailing, poor materials, poor workmanship • Stiff and heavy structures • Limited capacity to deform laterally

  39. SEISMIC ISOLATION

  40. SEISMIC ISOLATION USING LEAD-RUBBER BEARINGS

  41. LEAD-RUBBER BEARING

  42. USC UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL - WITH ISOLATION

  43. USC UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL - WITH ISOLATION

  44. OLIVE VIEW HOSPITAL - WITHOUT ISOLATION

  45. OLIVE VIEW HOSPITAL - WITHOUT ISOLATION

  46. OLIVE VIEW HOSPITAL - WITHOUT ISOLATION

  47. Civil Engineering has many interesting and challenging problems. • Protecting structures against damaging winds and earthquakes is one of the important jobs of a civil engineer.

  48. National Science Foundation Scientists and Engineers in the Schools Program