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  1. Chemistry Grade 10 Advanced Unit 1 STRUCTURE AND BONDING IN MATTER Name: ------------------------------------- Class: -----------

  2. Unit 1 STRUCTURE AND BONDING IN MATTER By the end of the chapter, most students know the mass and charge in atoms and ions up to element 56 .Show how the electronic structure explains the patterns of elements in the periodic table and manipulate quantities such as proton number and mass number. They understand ionic, covalent and metallic bonding in terms of bond types. They write balanced molecular and ionic equations for simple reactions. They explain the macro-properties of the different states of matter in terms of their micro-structure. في نهاية هذا الفصل ، يتوقع من معظم الطلاب معرفةالكتلة و الشحنة في الذرات والأيونات حتى العنصر 56 ، يبين الطلاب كيف يمكن للتركيب الالكتروني أن يفسر أنماط العناصر في الجدول الدوري و يعالج كميات مثل عدد البروتونات والعدد الكتلي. يجب على الطلاب يفهموا الروابط الأيونية ، التساهمية ، الروابط المعدنية من حيث أنواع الترابط. أن يكتب الطلاب معادلات جزيئية و أيونية متوازنة لتفاعلات بسيطة.أن يشرح الطلاب خصائص حالات المادة المختلفة من خلال تراكيبها الصغيرة أو الجزيئية.

  3. Structure and properties التركيب والخصائص 17.1 Describe the distribution of mass and charge within an atom and deduce the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms and ions, given proton and nucleon numbers. 17.1يصف توزيع الكتلة والشحنة الكهربائية ضمن ذرة ويستنتج منها عدد البروتونات والنيترونات والالكترونات الموجودة في الذرات وفي الأيونات ، عندما يُعطى عدد البروتونات والنيكليونات. Objectives Students will be able to: 1. Understand that atoms are made up of a nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons in specific orbital's or shells. 2. Define and use the terms proton number, Nucleon number. 3. Describe the distribution of mass and charge within an atom and Deduce the numbers of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms and ions, given proton and nucleon numbers. Key Vocabulary Atom Nucleus Proton Neutron Electron Orbital’s – Shells Ions Proton number Nucleon number Atoms are made up of three different subatomic particles: protons (p), neutrons (n) and electrons (e). The nucleus is at the centre of the atom, and contains the protons and neutrons and the electrons in specific orbital's around the nucleus. Atomic Number “Proton Number” (Z): Number of protons. Mass Number “Nucleon Number” (A): Number of protons + Number of neutrons. * New Chemistry for you :30-34

  4. Exercises Q1- Write down the definition of following terms. اكتب تعريف المصطلحات التالية. • The mass number “Nucleon Number” (A) of an atom. • ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ • b. The atomic number “Proton Number”(Z) of an atom. • ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ • c. Protons. • -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • d. Electrons. • ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- • e. Neutrons. • --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Q2- Complete the following table. .أكمل الجدول التالي Q3- Explain why atom is electrically neutral? لماذا تعتبر الذرة متعادلة كهربائيا ؟ Neutral متعادل -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  5. Electronic configuration التوزيع الإلكتروني 17.2 Deduce the atomic structure of an atom or ion of any given element up to barium (56) and show how the structures explain the pattern of elements in the periodic table. 17.2يستدلعلى التركيبالذريلذرةأوأيونعنصرماحتىالعنصر 56، وهوعنصرالباريوم،ويبين كيف أن التركيب الإلكتروني يفسرأنماط العناصرفي الجدول الدوري. • Objectives : • Deduce the atomic structure of an atom or ion of any given element up to barium (56) and show how the structures. • 2. Explain the pattern of elements in the periodic table. Key vocabulary: Atomic structure Elements Periodic table. Electron configuration Electron configuration shows the number of electrons in each Orbital. Number of electrons in the outer shell gives the number of Group. عدد الإلكترونات في المدار الخارجي لذرة العنصر يدل على رقم المجموعة Number of shells give the number of periodin the periodic table. عدد المدارات فى الذرة يدل على رفم الدورة في الجدول الدوري * New Chemistry for you :32 and 60 The table below explains shells and number of electrons. Example 1: 1224Mg Example 2 : 8 16O Group: ( 2 ) Period:( 3 ) Group: ( ) Period: ( )

  6. Exercises Q1: Draw the electronic configuration of the following atoms and determine period and group number. ارسم التوزيع الالكتروني للعناصر في الجدول وحدد رقم المجموعة و الدورة:

  7. Lose electrons Gain electrons Atom ذرة Ion أيون Ions الأيونات In an atom the number of Protons = the number of electrons, SoThe atom is electrically neutral In an ion: The number of positively charged protons ≠ number of negatively charged electrons. Each atom try to attains the stable electronic configuration as a noble gases An ion is electrically charged atom Look at the diagrams below which present ions formation states * New Chemistry for you 85

  8. Writing activity Use the above diagram to write a short story between sodium and chlorine. Support student’s English language by doing this activity. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  9. Exercises Q1- Calculate the number of electrons, protons and neutrons in the following:

  10. Relative isotopic mass, relative atomic mass. الكتلة النظائرية النسبية , الكتلة الذرية النسبية 17.3 Define the terms relative isotopic mass, relative atomic mass, relative molecular mass and relative formula mass based on the carbon-12 scale and be able to calculate the relative molecular mass of a compound, given its formula and a relative atomic mass table. 17.3يعرف مصطلحات مثل ” الكتلة النظائرية النسبية“ ، ”الكتلة الذرية النسبية“، والكتلة النسبية للجزئ بناء على مقياس الكربون -12.ويتمكن من حساب الكتلة الجزيئية النسبية لمركب ما، عندما يكون علم بصيغته ولدية جدول للكتل الذرية النسبية Objectives 1. Define the terms relative isotopic mass, relative atomic mass. 2. Define relative molecular mass and relative formula mass based on the carbon-12 scale. 3. Calculate the relative molecular mass of a compound, given its formula and a relative atomic mass table. Key vocabulary: -Relative isotopic mass -Relative atomic mass. -Relative molecular mass Relative formula Mass and relative molecular mass The relative formula mass of a substance (or molecular mass Mr ) Is the sum of the relative atomic masses of the atoms present in a formula unit or molecule. * New Chemistry for you 36-37 Relative molecular mass Relative molecular mass Relative formula mass Hint; The relative formula mass or molecular mass given as Mr

  11. Exercises Q1: What is the meaning of the term relative formula mass (R.F.M)? Q2- Use the following table to calculate the relative formula mass (R.F.M) or molecular mass for each of the following: a) Nitrogen dioxide NO2 b) Sodium chloride NaCl c) Aluminum Oxide Al2O3

  12. Spectrometry and isotopes قياس الطيف والنظائر 17.4 Know that mass spectrometry can furnish information on relative isotopic masses and isotopic abundance. 17.4 یعرفأنتحليلالطيفالكتليیمكنأنیوفرمعلوماتعنالكتلالنظائریة النسبية والكثرةالنسبيةللنظائر 17.5 Know that isotopes can be distinguished by their different numbers of neutrons and explain why the relative atomic mass of many elements is not a whole number. 17.5 یعرفأنهبالإمكانتمييزالنظائرمنخلالالأعداد المختلفة للنيترونات الموجودة فيهاویشرح لماذا الكتلة الذریة النسبية للعدید من العناصرغيرمكونة من أعداد صحيحة. Objectives: 1. Describe the mass spectrometer. 2. Explain how mass spectrometry can give information about masses and abundance of isotopes. 3. Relate the difference in isotopes to the different numbers of neutrons. 4. Explain why the relative atomic mass of many elements is not a whole number. Key Vocabulary Mass Spectrometer Isotopic Abundance لقد طور جهاز لدراسة كتل الأجسام موجبة الشحنة (الأيونات) يعرف بمطياف الكتلة ويمثل الشكل مخططاً لواحد من هذه .الأجهزة وأهميته في فصل الأيونات حسب كتلتها و الكثرة النسبية للنظائر A- تبخير العينة B- غرفة التأين C- تسريع الأيونات D- المجال المغناطيسي E- المراقبة(monitor) F- إلى مضخة التفريغ sspec1.htm * New Chemistry for you: 364-6 The mass spectrometer: is a device that separate particles based on their mass. The samples must move through the following steps 1-vaporization- heat the substance to turn it into gas 2- Ionization – to form positive ions. 3- Acceleration – to move the ions fast by an electric field. 4- Deflection - by magnetic field where ions are separated according to their mass. 5-detection-where a monitor displays graph of different ions according to their mass and abundance audio visual resource. Let students watch a short animation/video clip to help them to appreciate how a mass spectrometer works.

  13. Isotopes النظائر * New Chemistry for you:35 Isotopes are atoms differ in mass because they differ in the number of neutrons. The relative atomic mass of many elements is not a whole number because of the presence of isotopes. The average relative atomic mass is the weighted average for all isotopes of a given element based upon their relative percent abundance. النظائر هي ذرات تختلف في الكتلة الذرية لأنها تختلف بعدد النيترونات. الكتلة الذرية النسبية لعدد من العناصر ليست العدد الحقيقي بسبب وجود نظائر لتلك العناصر و معدل الكتلة الذرية النسبية هو الوزن النسبي لجميع النظائر المكونة بناء على النسبة المئوية لتواجدها. Example Chlorine exist as two naturally occurring isotopes Cl-35 and Cl-37 . if the Cl-35 has an abundance of 75.76% and Cl-37 has abundance of 24.24% ,determine the relative atomic mass of chlorine. Solution: Ar = = 35.48

  14. Exercises 1. وجد بواسطة مطياف الكتلة أن لعنصر ثلاثة نظائر كتلها الذرية ونسبها في عينة من العنصر كما يلي: الكتلة الذرية النسبيةالنسبة المئوية 27.97792.21% 28.9714.70 % 29.9743.09 % احسب الكتلة الذرية للعنصر. وما اسم العنصر؟

  15. Bonding الروابط 17.6describe ionic and covalent bonding. 17.6 یصفالرابطةالأیونية )ارتباطالتكافؤالكهربائي( والرابطةالتساهمية. Objectives: 1. Relate types of bonding between atoms to its electron configuration. 2- Show the role of valence electrons in determining the type of bonds between atoms. 3- Represent ionic and covalent bonds using Lewis structures Key Vocabulary Electron configuration Valence electrons Ionic bonds Covalent bonds Lewis structures chemical bond ( الرابطة الكيميائية ) is a force of attraction between the atoms which holds them together. The atoms combine with one another to reach a noble gas electronic configuration and become stable and this is why atoms banded together. Octet rule (قاعدة الثمانية ) When atoms combine to form a chemical bond, they gain, lose or share electrons in such a way that each atom gets noble gas configuration or 8 electrons in its outer most shell (or 2 electrons in the outer most K shell.) Lewis electron dot structure ( تركيب لويس ) shows the symbols of elements along with their valence electrons as dots around them. Valence (outer most) electrons are usually the only electrons used in chemical bonds. So, only valence electrons are shown in electron dot structure. As you are familiar that all of the group 1 elements have 1 valence electron so they are shown with 1 dot. Group 2 elements have 2 dots; group 3 elements have 3 dots and so on.

  16. IONIC BOND الرابطة الأيونية  An ionic bond is formed when a metal atom gives its valence electrons to a non metal atom. By losing electrons, the metal forms a positively charged ion (cation). The non- metal atom gains electrons and forms negatively charged ion (anion).The positively and negatively charged ions attract one another. The strong force of attraction between the oppositely charged ions is called ionic bond. تتكون الرابطة الأيونية عندما تفقد ذرة الفلز إلكتروناتها الخارجية وتعطيها لذرة اللافلز وتتكون على ذرة الفلز شحنة موجبة(كاتبون ) وعلى ذرة اللافلز شحنة سالبة(أنيون)ويحدث التجاذب الكهربي بين الأيونات الموجبة والسالبة و هذا التجاذب الكهربي القوي بين الأيونات يسمى بالرابطة الأيونية. Example of ionic bond formation between Na and Cl * New Chemistry for you: 248-250 Examples of ionic bond formation in CaF2 and K2 S

  17. Exercises Q1: Try for ionic bond formation in the following elements:

  18. Covalent bonding الرابطة التساهمية The chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms of non-metals is known as a covalent bond. The sharing of electrons takes place in such a way that each atom in the resulting molecule gets the stable noble gas electronic configuration. The electron pair which is shared makes a covalent bond. Covalent bonds are of three types- single, double and triple covalent bonds. الرابطة التي تتكون نتيجة لمشاركة ذرات الللافلزات في الكتروناتها الخارجية تعرف بالرابطة التساهمية. تنقسم الرابطة التساهمية الى ثلاث أنواع أحادية, ثنائية وثلاثية a) Single covalent bond( الرابطة التساهمية الآحادية ) • A single covalent bond is formed by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms: • formation of hydrogen molecule • 2) Formation of Fluorine molecule *New Chemistry for you: 256-257 3) Formation of Hydrogen bromide molecule

  19. b) Double covalent bond( الرابطة التساهمية الثنائية ) A double covalent bond is formed by sharing 2 pairs or 4 electrons between the two atoms Formation of oxygen molecule c) Triple covalent bond ( الرابطة التساهمية الثلاثية ) A triple covalent is formed by sharing 3 pairs or 6 electrons between the two atoms Formation of nitrogen molecule Activity استعملأشكاللویس )رسوماتمننقاطوخطوط ( لبيانالترابطفيعددمنالمركباتالمختلفة: مثلاً: الرابطةالأیونيةفيفلوریدالصودیوموفي أكسيدالمغنيسيوم – والرابطة التساهمية في الأمونيا وفي الميثان. صمّموحضّرعرضاًباستخدامإلكتروناتتكافؤلبيانالترابط . بإمكانك استخدم المراجع التالية لدرس الروابط الكيميائية. Resources used in the section of chemical bonding 1) New chemistry for You ( LawrieRyan ) page 35-36 and page 248-262 2) 3) 4)

  20. Metallic bonding الرابطة الفلزية 17.7 Explain metallic bonding in terms of a lattice of positive ions surrounded by a sea of mobile electrons and explain the physical properties of metals and alloys in terms of this bonding. 17.7 يفسر الرابطة الفلزية بدلالة شبكة من الأيونات الموجبة المحاطة بسحابة من الإلكترونات المتحركة، ويفسرالخصائص الفيزيائيةللفلزات والسبائك بدلالة هذا الأرتباط • Objectives: • 1. Explain metallic bonding. • 2. Explain the physical properties of alloys. • 3. Write an example of alloy. Key vocabulary: metallic bonding drift Delocalized Alloy Each of magnesium atom gives up its electrons from its outer shell into the “sea” Or “ cloud” of electrons. The electrons can drift about in the metal. We call them ‘delocalized ’ electrons. delocalized means "not fixed in one place" or "free to move". كل ذرة من المغنيسيوم تفقد الكترونات من غلافها الخارجي وتتحول الى بحر أو "سحابة" من الالكترونات حول الذرة . نسميها الكترونات غير متمركزة. الكترونات غير متمركزة تعني "ليست ثابتة في مكان واحد" أو ” لها حرية التحرك *New Chemistry for you: 268

  21. Exercises Q1: Mention the properties of metals: Q2: Why metals are good conductors of electricity? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….. …………………………………………………………………………………………………….………….… Q3- Compare between ionic and metallic bonding:

  22. Alloy السبائك An alloy is a mixture of metals. السبائك: خليط من المعادن Aeroplanes are made from aluminium alloys Carbon add in to pure iron metal ( Alloy ) Pure iron metal • Q1: Write three examples of alloys: • ……………… • b) …………….. • c) …………….. • Q2: State why alloys are widely used in industry: • ………………………………………………………. • ……………………………………………………….. *New Chemistry for you: 270- 272

  23. Giant Covalent Molecules الجزيئات العملاقة 17.8 Know that some covalent compounds, such as the element carbon and the compound silicon(IV) oxide, form giant molecular structures. 17.8 يعرف أن بعض المركبات التساهمية الترابط مثل عنصر الكربون ومركب أكسيد السيليكون (IV) تكون تراكيب جزيئية ضخمة. • Objectives: • 1. Identify the giant covalent molecular. • Key vocabulary: • - giant covalent compounds • Q1:The following figures represents giant molecular structure • write the name of each structure using the word in below box • b) Answer the questions below: • 1) Which giant molecule is formed from two elements? ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. • 2) Mention these two elements ? …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3) Which giant molecules are made of one element only? • ………………………….. …………………………………………………………………… • 4) Mention that element? • ………………………………………………………………………………………………. Diamond , Graphite , Fullerene , Silica a b *New Chemistry for you: 258 ……………………… ……................……. c d ……………………… ……................…….

  24. Allotropy التآصل 17.9 Show an understanding of allotropy. 17.9یفهم معنى التآصل (اختلاف الشكل وتماثل الترآيب الكيميائي). • Objectives: • 1. Define allotropy • 2. Explain the physical properties of some allotropy • Key vocabulary: • Allotropy Allotropes: are different forms of the same element ( in the same state). التآصل: أشكال مختلفة لنفس العنصر ( في نفس الحالة) Q1- The following figures represents allotropes of carbon , write the name of each structure: …………………. …..…………… Q2- Fill in the table below with the Physical properties of diamond and graphite, using New chemistry for you 258-259

  25. Properties Covalent and ionic compounds خصائص المركبات التساهمية والأيونية 17.10Explain the differing physical properties of covalent and ionic compounds in terms of their bonding and be able to deduce the type of bond from information about physical properties. 17.10یشرح الخصائص الفيزیائية المختلفة لمركبات تساهمية وأیونية بدلالة روابطهاویستطيع الاستدلال علىنوع الارتباط من المعلومات حول الخصائص الفيزیائية لهذه المركبات • Objectives: • 1.Explain the differing physical properties of covalent and ionic compounds. • 2. Deduce the type of bond from information about physical properties. • Key vocabulary: • metals • non-metals • Ionic • Covalent • Metallic The bonding and structure of a substance explain its properties; the table below summarizes this relation so that you can compare the different types of structure and bonding:

  26. Exercises • Q1: Study the table below then answer the following questions: • The properties of substances A, B, C, D, E and F are given below. • Which substances have a giant ionic structure? .................... • b) Which substances have a simple molecular structure? .................... • c) Which substances have a metallic structure? .................... • d) Which substances have a giant molecular structure? .................... • e) Which substances are liquids at room temperature (25oC)? .................... • f) Which substances are gases at room temperature (25oC)? .................... • g) Which two substances are most likely to dissolve in an organic solvent? ................

  27. Ionic compounds المركبات الأيونية 17.11Explain why molten ionic compounds and solutions of ionic compounds conduct electricity. 17.11 یشرحلماذاالمركباتالأیونيةالمنصهرةومحاليلالمركبات الأیونية توصل الكهرباء. • Objectives : • Molten ionic compounds conduct electricity. • 2. Solutions of ionic compounds conduct electricity. • 3. Solid ionic compounds can’t conduct electricity. Key vocabulary: -Molten ionic compounds Ionic compounds made up of ions (charged particles) .Solid sodium chloride contain fixed ions can’t move to the electrodes. So, it can’t conduct electricity. However, when they are melted or dissolved in water, the ions become free to move around. So, it can conduct electricity. Writing activity Write another paragraph for sodium chloride -------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------

  28. Lab activity 1. Set up the circuit as shown 2. Dip the electrodes into some solid sodium chloride. - Did the solid conduct the current? …………………………………….. 3. Now half-fill the beaker with water, and stir. - Does the blub light up now? …………………………………….. - Does the solution conduct electricity? ……………………………………… 4. Switch off your power pack as soon as the test is completed. Q1) Why do the solutions of ionic compound conduct electricity? * New Chemistry for you: 252 Q2) Explain: molten potassium bromide conduct electricity?

  29. Writing chemical equations كتابة المعادلات الكيميائية 17.12Write equations with state symbols for simple reactions, including ionic equations for reactions in aqueous solution, given the formulae of reactants and products. 17.12یكتب معادلات تحتوي على الرموزالتي تدل على حالة المادة لتفاعلات بسيطة ،بما فيها معادلات أیونية لتفاعلات تحصل في محلول مائي ،عندما یعرف صيَغ المواد المتفاعلة ونواتجها. Objectives : Write equations with state symbols for simple reactions • Key vocabulary: • - symbols • - reactions • - ionic equations • - aqueous solution • Reactants • products What is a chemical equation?ماهي المعادلة الكيميائية ؟ When a chemical reaction occurs, it can be described by an equation. This shows the chemicals that react (called the reactants) on the left-hand side, and the chemicals that they produce (called the products) on the right-hand side .Unlike mathematical equations, the two sides are separated by an arrow, that indicates that the reactants form the products and not the other way round. How to write the chemical equations?كيف تكتب المعادلة الكيميائية المعادلة قد تكون لفظية أو رمزية ولكتابة المعادلة الرمزية يجب التقيد بالشروط اللازمة لكتابة الرمز الكيميائي للمادة , العناصرالغازية تكتب في شكل جزيئات ثنائية H2 , N2, O2. اما المركبات فتكتب بصيغها الكيميائية MgO, NaCl. العناصر الصلبة مثل الفلزات والكربون تكتب ذراتها المفردة Mg, Na, C . بعد ذلك تتم موازنة المعادلة بحيث تكون عدد الذرات المتفاعلة تساوي عدد الذرات الناتجة. Chemicals can be represented by their names or by their chemical symbols. Symbols of element gases are diatomic like H2 , N2, O2 . Solid elements can be represented by simples like Mg, Na, C, Al. Compounds are represented by their chemical formula like MgO, NaCl. For metals with different oxidation states ,add Roman number when represented by their names e.g Copper(II) oxide (CuO)There are reversible reactions, which means that the reactants react together to form the products, but as soon as the products are formed, they start to react together to reform the reactants! Reversible reactions are indicated with a double arrow as shown in the example below:

  30. لتكون المعادلة أكثر وضوحا تكتب رموز صغيرة تعبر عن حالات المادة To make a chemical equation complete, the state of matter of each substance should also be included. This indicates whether the substance is: * In this example, solid magnesium ribbon burns in oxygen gas to form solid magnesium oxide: 2 Mg (s) + O2 (g) -- 2 MgO (s) Student activity (1): Use your periodic table and table of poly atomic ions to write the chemical formulas for the following compounds. Show the following steps; Step one - Write the symbols for the elements or the polyatomic ions in the compound. Step two - Look up the valence numbers of the elements or the polyatomic ions involved and write them as superscripts to the right of the elemental symbols. Step three - Use the correct combination of ions (and the polyatomic ions) to produce a compound with a net charge of zero. Multiple ions are indicated with subscripts. *New Chemistry for you: 26-28 Teacher will be provide periodic table to students with a table of polyatomic ions

  31. Exercises الفلزات متعددة حالات التأكسديكتب رقم التأكسد بالأرقام الاتينيه. مثال:

  32. Q2) Write full balanced equations, including state symbols, for the following reactions: a) Hydrogen reacting with nitrogen to produce ammonia gas. b) Silver nitrate solution reacting with hydrochloric acid to give sliver chloride and nitric acid c) The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide give water and oxygen d) The reaction of carbon monoxide with iron(III) oxide to give iron and carbon dioxide. This reaction occurs at high temperatures in the blast furnace. Homework Write word and formula equations for the chemical reaction that occur when aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide is added to hydrochloric acid to give sodium chloride and water.

  33. Kinetic particle theory 17.13 Use the kinetic particle theory to explain the main characteristics of the three states of matter and changes between the states: •the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory as applied to an ideal gas; •the liquid state, including melting, vaporisation and vapour pressure; •the lattice structure of a crystalline solid. 17.13یستخدمنظریةالحركةالجزیئيةلتفسيرالخصائصالرئيسيةلحالاتالمادةالثلاثوالتغيّراتفيمابينها،وعلىالأخص: •الافتراضاتالأساسيةلنظریةالحركةالجزیئيةفيتطبيقهاعلىغازمثالي؛ •الحالةالسائلةبمافيهاالانصهاروالتبخروالضغطالبخاري: •التركيبالشبكيلمادةبلوریةصلبة. Objectives : 1. Know the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory as applied to an ideal gas. 2. Use the kinetic particle theory to explain the main characteristics of the three states of matter and changes between the states. • Key vocabulary: • - kinetic particle theory • ideal gas • lattice structure • crystalline solid • vaporisation a) Basic assumptions of the kinetic theory: 1. A gas has no fixed shape or volume, but always spreads out to fill any container. 2. There are almostno forces of attraction between the particlesso they are completely free of each other. 3. The particles arewidely spaced and scatteredat random throughout the container so there is no order in the system. 4. The particlesmove rapidly in all directions,frequently collidingwith each other and the side of the container. 5. Withincrease in temperature, theparticles move faster as they gain kinetic energy.

  34. Using the particle model to explain the properties of a Gas Gases have a very low density (‘light’) because the particles are so spaced out in the container (density = mass / volume). Density order: solid > liquid >>> gases Gases flow freely because there are no effective forces of attraction between the gaseous particles - molecules. Ease of flow order: gases > liquids >>> solids (no real flow in solid unless you powder it!)Because of this gases and liquids are described as fluids. Gases have no surface, and no fixed shape or volume, and because of lack of particle attraction, they always spread out and fill any container (so gas volume = container volume). Gases are readily compressed because of the ‘empty’ space between the particles. Ease of compression order: gases >>> liquids > solids (almost impossible to compress a solid) Gas pressure When a gas is confined in a container the particles will cause and exert a gas pressure which is measured in atmospheres (atm) or Pascals (Pa = N/m2) - pressure is force/area on which force is exerted. The gas pressure is caused by the force created by millions of impacts of the tiny individual gas particles on the sides of a container. For example - if the number of gaseous particles in a container is doubled, the gas pressure is doubled because doubling the number of molecules doubles the number of impacts on the side of the container so the total impact force per unit area is also doubled. This doubling of the particle impacts doubling the pressure is pictured in the two diagrams below. 2 x particles ===> P x 2

  35. Exercises Q1) Draw simple diagrams to show the three states of matter? Solid particles Liquid particles Gas particles Q2) Use assumptions of the kinetic theory and the shapes of the three states of matter to complete the following table: Q3) Which of the three states of matter: a. Have the most ordered molecules-------------- b. Take the shape of the container.--------------- c. Have very weak forces between its molecules--------------. d. Have fixed shape.-------------- e. Have the higher kinetic energy molecules.-------------- f. Have higher compressibility.------------------------