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The phylogeny of land plants

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  1. The phylogeny of land plants • The likely ancestor are charophycean algae • Chloroplast DNA and ribosomal RNA indicate charophycean algae and land plants had common ancestor • Membranes of land plants and charophyceans have rosette-shaped arrays of proteins that make the cell walls • Other algae have linear arrays • Land plants and charophyceans have anti-photorespiration enzymes packaged into organelles called peroxisomes • Peroxisomes not found in other algae • Similarity of sperm of land plants and charophycean algae

  2. Chara

  3. Land plant life cycle Gametophyte (1N) Spores (1N) Eggs or sperm Sporophyte (2N)

  4. Major evolutionary events in land plant evolution • 1) Invasion of land

  5. Bryophyta • Lack true roots, stems and leaves • Instead have rhizoids, caulalia and phyllodes • Require moisture for fertilization • Without vascular tissue; rely on diffusion • Dispersal by spores • Gametophyte is dominant stage • Lack cuticle

  6. Bryophyta (moss)

  7. Bryophyta (hornwort)

  8. Bryophyta (liverworts)

  9. Major evolutionary events in land plant evolution • 2) The evolution of vascular tissue • Xylem for conduction of water • Phloem for conduction of carbohydrates from leaves or fronds to other parts of plant body • 3) Sporophyte is dominant phase of life cycle • 4) Cutin lines external surfaces

  10. Vascular plants • Roots, stems and leaves present • Presence of vascular tissue

  11. Lycophyta (club mosses)

  12. Lycophyta - club mosses • Do not produce seeds • Spores borne on strobili

  13. Pterophyta (ferns)

  14. Pteridophyta - ferns • Do not produce seeds • Spores produced in sori on the underside of fertile fronds

  15. Major evolutionary events in land plant evolution • 5) evolution of seeds • A seed is a structure that encloses and protects a developing embryo • 6) evolution of pollination

  16. Seed plants • Gametophyte much reduced and dependent on sporophyte • Seed consists of sporophyte embryo packaged along with a food supply within a protective coat • Adapted for terrestrial existence • Pollination replaces swimming as the mechanism for delivering sperm to the egg

  17. Gymnosperms • Naked seeds • Lack the enclosed chambers (ovaries) in which angiosperm ovules and seeds develop • Rather, gymnosperm ovules and seeds develop on the surfaces of specialized leaves called sporophylls • Wind pollination • Water not needed for pollination • All are woody plants (no herbaceous species) • Date from 350 mybp

  18. Ginkgophyta • Only one species • Tree with fan-shaped leaves • Ovules develop into yellow, cherry-like seeds

  19. Ginkophyta

  20. Cycadophyta • Stem unbranched with terminal palm-like leaves • Cone-like sporophylls

  21. Cycadophyta (cycads)

  22. Gnetophyta • Flower-like cones • Xylem composed of tracheids and vessel elements

  23. Figure 28.4a Tracheids Pits

  24. Figure 28.4b Vessels Perforated end walls

  25. Gnetophyta (Ephedra or Mormon Tea) • Shrub of American deserts

  26. Gnetophyta (Welwitschia)

  27. Welwitschia • Found in the Nabib Desert • Two enormous leaves,the longest lived of any plant • Grow about five inches a year • Each leaf can reach several hundred square feet in size

  28. Coniferophyta • Sporophylls modified into cones • Wind-pollinated • Xylem with tracheids but no vessels

  29. Coniferophyta

  30. Coniferophyta

  31. Major evolutionary events in land plant evolution • 7) Evolution of flowers and fruits

  32. Anthophyta - flowering plants • Reproductive organs within a flower • Gametophytes greatly reduced • Ovules embedded within sporophyte tissue (ovary) • Seeds within a fruit • Appeared in early Cretaceous • Most pollination by insects and birds

  33. The origin of the angiosperms • Darwin wrote about “the abominable mystery” of what the first flowering plant looked like • Angiosperms appear suddenly in the fossil record with no obvious ancestors for a period of 80-90 million years before their appearance • Two hypotheses • Magnolia hypothesis • First angiosperm was a tree with complex flowers • Paleoherb hypothesis • First angionsperm was a non-woody plant with simple flowers

  34. Amborella • Analysis of DNA reveals this genus is the most primitive flowering plant • Flowers with moderate number of petals • Flowers are imperfect (separate male and female gametophytes) • Found only on island of New Caledonia in the South Pacific

  35. Amborella

  36. New Caledonia

  37. Amborella

  38. Water lilies

  39. Monocots

  40. Monocots - parallel venation

  41. Dicots

  42. Dicots - reticulate venation

  43. Diversity of various phyla of land plants • Bryophyta - 18,600 species • Lycophyta - 1,000 species • Pterophyta - 12,000 species • Ginkophyta - 1 species • Cycadophyta - 100 species • Gnetophyta - 70 species • Coniferophyta - 550 species • Anthophyta - 250,000 species!!