Land Plants • Vascular • They have “veins” that transport nutrients between leaves, roots, stems • The veins are actually vascular tissue called xylem and phloem Veins that carry water/nutrients
Xylem: carries water from roots to other parts of the plant • Phloem: carries sugar and nutrients from leaves to the rest of the plant • Why would sugar come from leaves? • Photosynthesis takes place mostly in leaves • (Photosynthesis uses sun and CO2 to make sugar and O2)
carbon dioxide water sugar oxygen
Parts of a Plant leaf fruit flower seed stem roots
Leaves • Main photosynthetic organ (why?) • Collects the most sunlight cuticle upper epidermis palisade cells lignin xylem phloem lower epidermis spongy cells guard cell stoma
Flowers/Fruits/Seeds • reproductive organs • flower petals are modified leaves that attract pollinators • hold seeds • dispersed to help the plant grow in new places
Stem/Roots • the stem holds up and support the plant; it also has vascular bundles of xylem and phloem • roots anchor the plant in the ground and absorb water and nutrients from the ground
What is the most important thing for a plant? • Where would be the best place in the ocean for plants and other photosynthetic organisms to be? light near the surface
Zones • Because light is so important to life, the ocean is separated in zones based on the amount of light that penetrates to that depth • photic means light • eu means good • dis means poor • a means no
Aquatic Plants • What do you think are some advantages and disadvantages to living in or near freshwater and saltwater?
Seagrasses • evolved from land plants • horizontal stems called rhizomes • very small flowers because… • they don’t need to attract pollinators • why not?
Salt Marsh • A salt marsh is an area that is partially flooded at high tide
Salt-Marsh Plants • Cordgrasses (halophytes- salt tolerant plants) • actually in grass family unlike seagrasses • not marine; just tolerant of salt • help protect areas from erosion • provide habitat and breedinggrounds • only get covered by salt water at high tides • salt glands in leaves excrete salt
Mangroves • trees and shrubs that live on shores • land plants tolerant of salt • create mangrove forests
thick leaves to reduce water loss; also excrete salt • seeds grow for a little while on parent then drop into the sediment below
Pneumatophores • specialized root extensions to help mangroves get extra oxygen because the mud they grow in doesn’t have enough