topology n.
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  1. Topology • What is a polygon? • Set operations • Interior, boundary, exterior • Skin, Hair, Wound, Cut, and regularization • Components, holes • Polygons and faces • Loops • A linear geometric complex

  2. Motivation • We need a terminology and notation to describe the domain for any particular representation or operation and the precise nature of the result. • How would you distinguish these situations?

  3. Symbols and notation • ! complement,  union,  intersection,  XOR We often use + for union and no operator for intersection ! has highest priority, then intersection: !A(!B+CD) •  inclusion, = equality •  member of,  not member of •  empty set, Ω whole space (Euclidean) • Set definition p: pA and pB} •  each,  there is,  implies,  iff • AB≠ sets interfere, AB=, AC=… exclusive •  a neighborhood (infinitely small ball) around a point

  4. List the letters corresponding to drawings that represent valid polygons according to your definition. B C D E F G A Define a polygon Write the definition of “polygon” on a sheet of paper with your name on it.

  5. Set theoretic operations complement union !S = {s: s  S} AB = {s: s  A or s  B} also written A+B ! has highest priority deMorgan Laws !!A=A !(A+B) = !A!B !(AB) = !A+!B intersection AB = {s: s  A and s  B} also written AB

  6. Differences A A B B AB = A!B+!AB A\B = A!B called XOR and also symmetric difference also written A–B

  7. Inclusion A  B A B complete the equivalence (A  B)  ( , pA  pB) A=B  AB and BA

  8. A set is bounded (or equivalently finite) if it is contained in a ball of finite radius. A line, a ray are not bounded A disk, and edge, are Bounded (finite)

  9. Boundary of 2D point-sets a point and its neighborhood (tiny ball around it) point in the interior iS of S (surrounded by disk entirely in S) S.e S.i point in the exterior eS of S (surrounded by disk entirely out of S) S S.b point on the boundary bS of S (all surrounding disks intersect S and !S) the point is touching S and !S

  10. How to draw the boundary Although the boundary has 0 thickness, we draw it as a thick line S S.b

  11. Interior, boundary, exterior S.e S.b S.i

  12. Open set A set is said to be open when it does not include any of its boundary S=S.i contains no points that touch S.b

  13. Closed set A set is closed if it contains its boundary S=S.i+S.b S.b  S

  14. Interior operator • The interior operator returns the difference between the set and its boundary S.i=S–S.b interior S

  15. Closure operator The closure operator returns the union of the set with its boundary S.k=S+S.b closure S

  16. Drawing the boundary • Use color or fill to indicate which portions of the boundary are included in the set S. vertex included in S edge included in S (does not include its end points) vertex not included

  17. Drawing interior boundaries • Interior boundaries = boundary portions not touching S.e vertices not in S P Must be drawn (not filled) to indicate that they are not part of S edge not in S rest is omitted (not drawn) for simplicity vertex included in S drawn filled

  18. Interior, boundary, and closure S out cells are omitted when obvious S.k S.i S.b

  19. Regularization operator • The regularization S.r of set S is S.i.k, the closure of its interior S closed-regularization We can also define the open-regularization S.k.i interior S.i.k S.i closure

  20. Decomposing the boundary Membrane S.m separates S.i from S.e Cut Skin Interior Hair Exterior Wound Any set S defines a decomposition of Ω into 6 exhaustive & exclusive sets: S.i, S.e, S.s, S.w, S.h, S.c

  21. Definitions • Boundary: S.b = points touching to S and !S • Interior: S.i = S – S.b • Exterior: S.e = !S – S.b • Membrane: S.m = S.i.bS.e.b • Skin: S.s = S.mS • Wound: S.w = S.m–S • Dangle: S.d = S.b–S.m • Hair: S.h = S.dS • Cut: S.c = S.d–S

  22. Regularized sets A set is closed-regularized if it is equal to the closure of its interior S = S.i.k A set is open-regularized if it is equal to the interior of its closure S = S.k.i Regularized sets have no cut and no hair

  23. A set S is connected if from every point p in S one can walk to every other point q in S along a curve C that lies entirely in S. A non-empty set S has one or more maximally connected components, which we will call the components of S If a connected subset of S contains a component U, then S=U. Connected components Draw a set S that is not connected but whose closure S.k is.

  24. vertex not in S Connected components This set is closed and connected Can join any pair of points by a curve in S This open set is not connected: it has 2 components

  25. A hole in S is a bounded components of its complement For example a closed cavity in a 3D shape Do not confuse a hole with the concave part where the coffee stays or with the through-hole in the handle of a mug Holes of a bounded set NOT a hole in a 3D set. S has genus 1 (1 handle) Hole in a 2D set Cannot say where the handle is!

  26. Closed set with one hole Examples of holes Simply connected closed set Open set with no hole Closed set with one hole

  27. Manifold boundary Connected set with a non-manifold boundary Connected set with a manifold boundary in 2D removing a non-manifold vertex would change the the number of connected components or of holes (which are the connected components of the complement)

  28. Write the definition of a polygon 2-cell (region), not its bounding curve connected may have holes needs not be manifold is bounded by straight line segments (a finite number) is bounded (finite) Do not confuse a topological definition with a particular data structure or representation scheme

  29. Definition of a polygon Connected, bounded, open-regularized, subset of the plane, with boundary is a subset of a finite union of lines. A polygon is open: does not contain its boundary A polygon is regularized: has no cut (S=S.k.i) A polygon can be non-manifold A polygon may have holes

  30. Cells of a polygon • Given a polygon, do we know what are its edges and vertices? • Note that this is different from the question: given a set of edges and vertices, what is the polygon they define. • Because a representation of a polygon in terms of edges and vertices may be • ambiguous • invalid • We will discuss a representation scheme for modeling polygons

  31. Vertices and edges of a polygon Crossings Non-manifold vertices Vertices Non-smooth points of S.b that are not crossings Connected components of the boundary without vertices and crossings Edges Edges, vertices, crossings are exclusive

  32. Circuits of a polygon Circuit 2 The circuits of S are the components of S.b Circuits are exclusive Circuit 1 Can they be represented as a circular list of vertex ids? The same vertex may appear more than once, but the circuit should not cross itself

  33. Computing the circuits Edges = roads Vertices = turns Crossings = intersections Each tour visits a loop Pick unvisited edge Walk along interior sidewalk - keep road on your left - never cross a street Each circuit may be represented by a circular list of vertex ids (with replications). S.b is the union of all its circuits (which are disjoint)

  34. Definition of a Face Open, connected, subset of the plane, with boundary in the union of a finite number of lines Needs not be regularized: may have a cut Needs not be bounded: may be infinite

  35. Want polyhedra boundaries to be decomposed into an exclusive set of vertices, edges, and faces Polyhedra are bounded by faces, not by polygons Why distinguish faces & polygons

  36. Faces from edges of arrangement • Consider the union U of edges in the plane Ω • The connected components of Ω–U are faces The edges define an arrangement The faces are the 2-cells of the arrangement A (unbounded face) C B

  37. How to compute the arrangement • Split all edges are their intersections and at their intersections with vertices of other edges • Build circuits for each face • Keep edges to your left and never cross them • Build an inclusion tree of circuits • Assume a sidewalk at infinity around everything • Each node is a loop that contains all its children • Cast ray inwards and use parity of # of intersections • Identify faces and their boundaries • Nodes at even graph-distance from the root are the outer boundaries of faces • Their children are the boundaries of their holes

  38. B A C 0 A 1 2 3 1 2 3 B C 0 Inclusion tree

  39. Linear Complex K Exclusive and exhaustive collection of cells: vertices (0-cells), edges (1-cells), faces (2-cells), and in 3D volumes (3-cells). The boundary of any cell c of K is the union of cells of K. Each cell c of K can be asked for is set c.p, its dimension c.d, its boundary c.b, and its star c.s.

  40. Test 1 • Let S=DiskLine. The series of figures, below, show the SGC, G, defined by S (i.e., S=G.p). From left to right, identify (fill in) the cells for SGCs yielding the following pointsets: S, S.e, S.b, S.i, S.k, and S.r. Make sure that you correctly classify the vertices (0-cells).

  41. Test 2 • Consider the SGC, G, shown below left. Let S=G.p. In the subsequent figures, from left to right, mark (i.e. fill in) the cells of SGCs whose point sets are in the skin, wound, membrane, hair, cut, and dangle of S.