Forward-backward algorithm. LING 572 Fei Xia 02/23/06. Outline. Forward and backward probability Expected counts and update formulae Relation with EM. HMM. A HMM is a tuple : A set of states S={s 1 , s 2 , …, s N }. A set of output symbols Σ ={w 1 , …, w M }.

ByNotational Systems. Fall 2003 IST 331 Lecture 4. Cognitive Dimensions. Tool to aid non-HCI specialists evaluate usability of information-based artifacts Broad-brush evaluation Use terms easy to understand Not just applicable to interactive devices, but also to paper-based notations

ByGraphing Greatest Integer Functions. Step Functions – functions whose graphs resemble sets of stair steps. . Greatest Integer Function – the most notable step function . Notation of Greatest Integer Function :. x. Meaning of Greatest Integer Function : the greatest integer less than or

ByStandard Normal Distribution. AP Statistics Mr. Clark. Warm Up. AP Free Response 2000 #3. Homework. Any Questions? Pass it in. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normal_distribution. Notes:. Notation: A normal distribution with mean µ and standard deviation σ , can be written as N(µ, σ )

ByIntroduction to Powers of 10. Topics Covered in This Chapter: I-1: Scientific Notation I-2: Engineering Notation and Metric Prefixes I-3: Converting between Metric Prefixes I-4: Addition and Subtraction Involving Powers of 10 Notation.

ByL 0. A. L 1. B. C. D. L 2. E. F. Breadth-First Search. Breadth-first search (BFS) is a general technique for traversing a graph A BFS traversal of a graph G Visits all the vertices and edges of G Determines whether G is connected Computes the connected components of G

BySuffix Trees. Specialized form of keyword trees New ideas preprocess text T, not pattern P O(m) preprocess time O(n+k) search time k is number of occurrences of P in T edges can have string labels. p. t. o. o. e. p. o. t. e. o. 4. 1. 2. 3. Keyword Tree.

ByLimits and Derivatives. 2.1 The Tangent and Velocity Problems. Tangent. The word tangent is derived from the Latin word tangens , which means “touching.” Thus a tangent to a curve is a line that touches the curve.

ByL 0. A. L 1. B. C. D. L 2. E. F. Breadth-First Search. Breadth-first search (BFS) is a general technique for traversing a graph A BFS traversal of a graph G Visits all the vertices and edges of G Determines whether G is connected Computes the connected components of G

ByRelational Databases. Relational Algebra (2) Set operators, renaming, notation. Relational Algebra (2). Relational algebra query (expression) on set of relations produces relation as a result College ( cName , state , enrollment ) Student ( sID , sName , GPA , sizeHS )

ByRonald Wintrobe (1990): The Tinpot and the Totalitarian: An Economic Theory of Dictatorship. Presented for The Political Economics Reading Group at ESOP 25/5 2009, Carl Henrik Knutsen. Politics in dictatorships.

ByISOTOPIC NOTATION isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. A Z X A = mass number (the total number of protons + neutrons) Z = atomic number (the total number of protons) X = element symbol.

ByATTITUDE REPRESENTATION. Attitude cannot be represented by vector in 3-dimensional space, like position or angular velocity, even though attitude is a “3-dimensional” quantity.

ByPercent notation is used extensively in our everyday lives. Here are some examples: 63 % of the aluminum used in the United States is recycled. 0.08 % blood alcohol level is a standard used by most states at the legal limit for drunk driving.

ByGoals: understand principles behind network layer services: routing (path selection) dealing with scale how a router works advanced topics: IPv6, multicast instantiation and implementation in the Internet. Overview: network layer services routing principle: path selection

ByA Continuity Theory of Source Coding over Networks WeiHsin Gu, Michelle Effros, Mayank Bakshi, and Tracey Ho FLoWS PI Meeting, Washington DC, September 2008. Status Quo. Achievable rate regions are hard to characterize. Only solved for some small networks and multicast networks

ByKaplan-Meier Estimation &Log-Rank Test. Survival of Ventilated and Control Flies (Old Falmouth Line 107)

ByLogic. Propositions and Negations. Propositions - Statements. A proposition is a statement that has the property of being true or false – not both Example 1: 2 is an odd number. Example 2: John went to the store.

ByLogic 3 Tautological Implications and Tautological Equivalences. Tautologies Remember, Tautologies are always true. Thus, if we can use different propositions and logical equivalences to show two statements are tautologies, we can do proofs.

ByView Notation PowerPoint (PPT) presentations online in SlideServe. SlideServe has a very huge collection of Notation PowerPoint presentations. You can view or download Notation presentations for your school assignment or business presentation. Browse for the presentations on every topic that you want.