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APA Citation Style created by Joseph W. Robertshaw Youngstown State University 2010. Teaching is . . . a psychological endeavor. a social science. a profession rather than a job. APA is used to provide a consistent format across a discipline. APA stands for A merican P sychological
APA stands for
The conventions of APA notation have been employed to provide unity in the knowledge base across the field. Related fields, like teaching, are increasingly adopting APA notation.
It savesyou, the researcher, time and toil when the writer uses convention in the citation process.
Proper APA formatting helps a researcher(you)follow the thread of an idea back to it’s source.
The references at the end of the material you are using can provide great leads to other source material.
Shouldn’t we pay it forward?
The penalties for plagiarism can be severe but so can the consequences for the victim.
so where do I start?
Let’s talk about thehow.
The cover sheet and the title page are not the same thing.
A separate title page should be placed after the cover sheet and before the body of the paper. Items included on the cover sheet vary as per instructor requirements (Stoner M., 2006).
Do not put your name in the header.
Instead place it after the Main Title with any university affiliations.
The first numbered page is the title page (not the cover sheet) beginning with the number 1.
The short title you will be using throughout the paper must be less than 50 characters.
The “short title” that reflects the basic focus of the paper should be included in the upper left of the header in ALL CAPS, along with running page numbers in the upper right of the page. These items should be separated by at least 3-5 spaces.
This is also the page for an authors note if applicable.
Don’t cite a source of one type as a source of a different type.
Know what material you are working with. This is especially true with sources that were retrieved from electronic databases. A book found online is not cited the same way as a paper copy.
Use a hard page break inserted at the end of the body of the paper to ensure that the reference page(s) begin on a new page.
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the Book. Location: Publisher
**(Electronic version of a Print Book)**
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the Book[ XXX reader version]. Retrieved from http://www.nameofsite.xxx
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the Journal, volume(issue), pages.
(If the journal paginates continuously by volume no issue number is needed.)
**( Electronicly retrieved Journal Article with no doi )**
Last name, First initial. (Year published) Title of the Article. Title of the Journal, Volume(issue), page numbers. Retrieved from http://www.nameofsite.xxx
**( Journal Article with doi )**
Last name, First initial. (Year published). Title of the Journal,Volume, page numbers doi:xx.xxxxxxxx
Last name, first initial. (Year published/month). Title of the Article. Title of the Publication, Volume(edition), page numbers.
**(Electronically retrieved Magazine Article)**
Last name, first initial. (Year published/ month) Title of the Article. Title of the Publication, Volume(edition), page numbers. Retrieved from http://www.nameofsite.xxx
(Last name, year of publication)
The ideas of
Shirley Smith and
all deserve equal consideration based upon their work.
Green, Sean P., Shriberg, Donna, & Farber, Samuel. L. (2008). What’s Gender Got To Do With Teachers’ Perception of Situation Severity and Requests for Assistance. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 18, 346-373. Holtgraves, T. Interpreting Questions and Replies: Effects of Face-Threat, Question Form, and Gender. (1991)Social Psychology Quarterly, 54, 15-24.Meyerhoff, M. (1998). Accommodating your data: the use and misuse of accommodation theory in sociolinguistics. Language & Communication, 18, 205-225. Otnes, C., Kim, K. & Kim, Y. C. (1994). Yes, Virginia, There is a Gender Difference: Analyzing Children’s Requests to Santa Claus. Journal of Popular Culture, 28.Oliver, B. (2000). Freud and the question of mediated social behaviour. Society in Transition, 31, 163-174.Phillipsen, L. C. (1999) Associations Between Age, Gender, and Group Acceptance and Three Components of Friendship Qualities. Journal of Early Adolescence, 4(1), 438-464.Ruzickova, E. (2007). Strong and mild requestive hints and positive-face redress in Cuban Spanish. Journal of Pragmatics,vol. 39, 1170-1202.Seargeant, P. (2009). Language ideology, language theory, and the regulation of linguistic behaviour. Language Sciences, 31, 345-359.Wilson, D. W. (1980). Ambiguity and Helping Behavior. New York:Penguin, The Journal of Social Psychology, 112, 155-156. Wilson, T. P. (1970). Conceptions of Interaction and Forms of Sociological Explanation. American Sociological Review, 697-710
List of helpful links to online APA style guides
Dr. Crazy (2005, Nov 30) Why I bother to teach MLA Style even though . . .[text blog] Http://crazyphd.blogspot.com/2005/11/why-i-bother-to-teach-mla-style-even.html
Msetfi R. Phd. (2009) APA style, literature searching and EndNote [Power Point Slides] www.lancs.uk/ihr/courses/dclinpsy/documents2008-9/researchDocs/teachingMaterials/APAlitSearchEndNote.ppt
Stoner, M. (v 4.0, 2006)Most common APA& PERRLA Mistakes. Retrieved 1/14/2009 from nursestoner.com/courses/APA%20and%20PERRLA.doc (firstname.lastname@example.org)