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New Zealand. Sergiy Martinyuk. Yaroslav Tkachuk. Yaroslav Mudrevskiy. Vadim Zakharchenko. Bohdan Samulyak. Yevgen Kostyuk. Vadim Vityuk. Kostyantin Yablonskiy. T otal area is 269,000 square kilometres . New Zealand consists of two main islands (North Island and South Island) .

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slide1

New Zealand

Sergiy Martinyuk

Yaroslav Tkachuk

Yaroslav Mudrevskiy

Vadim Zakharchenko

Bohdan Samulyak

Yevgen Kostyuk

Vadim Vityuk

Kostyantin Yablonskiy

slide2

Total area is 269,000 square kilometres

New Zealand consists of two main islands

(North Island and South Island)

Nearly 3.5 million people live in the country.

The capital of New Zealand is Wellington.

It is a financial centre too.

The city was founded in 1840 and has

been the capital since 1865.

The official language is English.

The climate of New Zealand is moist.

New Zealand is rich in minerals.

There are some major industries in the country,

for example, iron and steel industry.

The country has gas and petroleum.

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New Zealand

Kiwi is native animal in the country

Highest is Mount Cook (3,764 metres or 12,349 feet).

New Zealand Seasons

New Zealand does not have a large temperature range, lacking the extremes found in most continental climates. However, New Zealand weather can change unexpectedly—as cold fronts or tropical cyclones quickly blow in. Because of this, you should be prepared for sudden changes in weather and temperature if you're going hiking or doing other outdoor activities.

Spring - September, October, November

Summer - December, January, February

Autumn - March, April, May

Winter - June, July, August

slide4

New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state and she is represented by the Governor-General. The Governor-General also chairs the Executive Council, which is a formal committee consisting of all ministers of the Crown. Members of the Executive Council are required to be Members of Parliament, and most are also in Cabinet.

The New Zealand Parliament has only one chamber, the House of Representatives, which usually seats 120 Members of Parliament.

The regions are (

New Zealand has 12 regional councils. The territorial authorities are 16 city councils, 57 district councils, and the Chatham Islands Council. Four of the territorial councils (one city and three districts) and the Chatham Islands The regions are (asterisks denote unitary authorities): Northland, Auckland, Waikato, Bay of Plenty, Gisborne*, Hawke's Bay, Taranaki, Manawatu-Wanganui, Wellington, Marlborough*, Nelson*, Tasman*, West Coast, Canterbury, Otago, Southland, Chatham Islands*.

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Coat of arms consists of quartered shield.Shield is supported by two figures, a blonde woman of European descent holding the New Zealand flag, and a Māori warrior holding a taiaha (Māori ceremonial spear). The shield is topped with the St Edward's Crown, and beneath the shield are two silver fern leaves and a scroll bearing the words "New Zealand".

The New Zealand Flag is the symbol of the realm government and people of New Zealand. Its royal blue background is reminiscent of the blue sea and clear sky surrounding us. The stars of the Southern Cross emphasise this country's location in the South Pacific Ocean. The Union Flag gives recognition to our historical foundations and the fact that New Zealand was once a British colony and dominion.

Kiwi - the small species of flightless birds form an invariable part of New Zealand's identity known as kiwi. Different scientific variations have been observed on the behavior of this species of birds after lots of research work. They also form an important part of rich traditional customs of New Zealand where nature is worshipped and apprehended as great gift of God.

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Population

New Zealand's population of around 3,5 million is comprised of 78.3% New Zealand Pakeha, 13% New Zealand Maori and 5% Pacific Island Polynesian, while 1.3% are Chinese, 0.9% are I ndian and 1.5% are 'Other'. Europeans are the only group declining, percentage-wise, while Maori, Polynesian, Chinese, Indian and 'Other' peoples are on the rise.

Over 80% of the 3.7 million people are of European (mainly British)

Origin. Around 9% of the population is Maoris.

The majority of the population are of British origin, but

there are small group of Chinese, Indians, Dutch,

Yugoslavs, Greeks, and Poles.

English is the universal language, although Maori, a

language of the Polynesian group, is still spoken among

the Maori population and is taught in the Maori schools.

early history
New Zealand is one of the most recently settled major landmasses. The first settlers were Eastern Polynesians who went to New Zealand, probably in a series of migrations, sometime between around 700 and 2000 years ago. Over the following centuries these settlers developed into a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into Iwi (tribes) and hapū (subtribes) which would cooperate, compete and sometimes fight with each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to the Chatham Islands where they developed their own distinct Moriori culture.

The first Europeans known to have reached New Zealand were Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman and his crew in 1642.Māori killed several of the crew and no Europeans returned to New Zealand until British explorer James Cook's voyage of 1768–71. Cook reached New Zealand in 1769 and mapped almost the entire coastline. Following Cook, New Zealand was visited by numerous European and North American whaling, sealing and trading ships. They traded European food and goods, especially metal tools and weapons, for Māori timber, food, artefacts and water. On occasion, Europeans traded goods for sex. The potato and the musket transformed Māori agriculture and warfare, although the resulting Musket Wars died out once the tribal imbalance of arms had been rectified. From the early nineteenth century, Christian missionaries began to settle New Zealand, eventually converting most of the Māori population, who had become disillusioned with their indigenous faith by the introduction of Western culture.

Early History
new history
New History
  • Becoming aware of the lawless nature of European settlement and increasing interest in the territory by the French, the British government sent William Hobson to New Zealand to claim sovereignty and negotiate a treaty with Māori. The Treaty of Waitangi was first signed in the Bay of Islands on 6 February 1840. The drafting was done hastily and confusion and disagreement continues to surround the translation. The Treaty however remains regarded as New Zealand's foundation as a nation and is revered by Māori as a guarantee of their rights.
  • Initially under British rule, New Zealand had been part of the colony of New South Wales. Hobson initially selected Okiato as the capital in 1840, before moving the seat of government to Auckland in 1841, when New Zealand became a separate colony, and there were increasing numbers of European settlers to New Zealand particularly from the British Isles. At first, Māori were eager to trade with the 'Pakeha', as they called them, and many iwi (tribes) became wealthy. As settler numbers increased, conflicts over land led to the New Zealand Land Wars of the 1860s and 1870s, resulting in the loss of much Māori land. The details of European settlement and the acquisition of land from Māori remain controversial.

Representative government for the colony was provided for by the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 by the United Kingdom. The 1st New Zealand Parliament met in 1854. In 1856 the colony became effectively self-governing with the grant of responsible government over all domestic matters other than native policy. Power in this respect would be transferred to the colonial administration in the 1860s. In 1863 Premier Alfred Domett moved a resolution that the capital transfer to a locality in Cook Strait, apparently due to concern the South Island could form a separate colony. Commissioners from Australia (chosen for their neutral status) advised Wellington as suitable because of its harbour and central location, and parliament officially sat there for the first time in 1865. In 1893, the country became the first nation in the world to grant women the right to vote. In 1907, New Zealand became a Dominion within the British Empire, and a independent Commonwealth realm in 1947 when the Statute of Westminster was adopted, although in practice Britain had ceased to play any real role in the government of New Zealand much earlier than this. As New Zealand became more politically independent it became more dependent economically; in the 1890s, refrigerated shipping allowed New Zealand to base its entire economy on the export of meat and dairy products to Britain.

newest history
Newest History
  • New Zealand was an enthusiastic member of the British Empire, fighting in the Boer War, World War I and World War II, especially in the Battle of Britain, and supporting Britain in the Suez Crisis. The country was very much a part of the world economy and suffered as others did in the Great Depression of the 1930s. The depression led to the election of the first Labour government, which established a comprehensive welfare state and a protectionist economy.
  • New Zealand experienced increasing prosperity following World War II. However, some social problems were developing; Māori had begun to leave traditional rural life and move to the cities in search of work. A Māori protest movement would eventually form, criticising Eurocentrism and seeking more recognition of Māori culture and the Treaty of Waitangi, which they felt had not been fully honoured. In 1975 a Waitangi Tribunal was set up to investigate alleged breaches of the Treaty, and enabled to investigate historic grievances in 1985. In common with all other developed countries, social developments accelerated in the 1970s and social and political mores changed. Britain's membership of the European Economic Community in 1973 drastically reduced access for New Zealand exporters to largest market. This, along with the oil shocks of the 1970s, led to great economic and social changes during the 1980s under the 4th Labour government largely led by Finance Minister Roger Douglas, and commonly referred to as "Rogernomics."
wellington

Wellington

Wellington is New Zealand's political centre, housing Parliament and the head offices of all Government Ministries and Departments, plus the bulk of the foreign diplomatic missions that are based in New Zealand. Wellington has the 12th best quality of living in the world in 2009, a ranking holding steady from 2007, according to a 2007 study by consulting company Mercer. Of cities with English as the primary language, Wellington ranked fourth in 2007. Of cities in the Asia Pacific region, Wellington ranked third (2009) behind Auckland and Sydney, Australia. Of New Zealand cities only Auckland rated higher with a ranking of fourth best in the world in 2009

Wellington is the capital city and third most populous urban area of New Zealand. The urban area is situated on the southwestern tip of the country's North Island, and lies between Cook Strait and the Rimutaka Range. It is home to 386,000 residents, with an additional 3,700 residents living in the surrounding rural areas.

Wellington was named after Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo. The Duke's title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset.

interesting places of wellington
Interesting places of Wellington

Art Ferns & Civic Square

The bucket fountain

Night city

Yaroslav Mudrevskiy

christchurch
Christchurch

The biggest city in the South Island and second biggest in New Zealand is Christchurch.

Christchurch is the biggest city in the South Island and the third biggest city in New Zealand. It is a popular destination in New Zealand and is a major gateway to the country as it has the second biggest international airport. Internationally famed, the Garden City, Christchurch's well-established expansive parks and public gardens owe much to the planning and foresight of the city's founding fathers. The centrally-located 161 hectare Hagley Park, the Botanic Gardens, the four leafy inner-city avenues, Victoria Square and spectacular gardens such as Mona Vale on the banks of the River Avon bear testimony to this legacy. The Garden City Festival of Flowers held in February each year is certainly one of the most popular festivals on the annual calendar. In 1996, Christchurch was acknowledged as the outstanding garden city from 620 international entries and in 1997, was judged Overall Winner of Major Cities in the Nations in Bloom International Competition to become Garden City of the World!. Christchurch is also reputed to be the most English looking city outside of England and this claim is justified but strange when you consider that Christchurch is also the furtherest city in the world from England. The city contains many English trees such as Weeping Willows, Poplars, and Chestnut Trees along the the banks of the River Avon, named after it's English counterpart. Christchurch's architecture is striking as most of its old buildings have been preserved which adds to its English charm. The Square in the heart of the city is an entertaining place where you can sit down and watch unplanned entertainment from people debating subjects like religion or listening to the ramblings of the Wizard or the latest news from the Town Crier. The Square and Worcester Boulevard have some great Markets which are ideally set against some of New Zealands oldest and most beautiful buildings. The Markets at Worcester Boulevard are accessible by a Tram that travels from the Square to the Museum. The Port Hills, which is part of Banks Peninsula, houses some upper class suburbs and the views are quite spectacular as you can see the Canterbury Plains and the Southern Alps to the west and Banks Peninsula to the east.

nelson
Nelson

The Nelson region is administered as a unitary authority. It is positioned between Marlborough to the east and Tasman Region to the west. Nelson has beaches and a sheltered harbour. The harbour entrance is protected by a natural breakwater known as The Boulder Bank, which also reduces the effects of the tide on Nelson city's beach, Tahunanui. This allows for some of the safest sea bathing in the country.

Nelson is surrounded by mountains on three sides with Tasman Bay on the other. It functions as the gateway to the Abel Tasman National Park, the Kahurangi National Park, and Rotoiti & Rotoroa in the Nelson Lakes National Park. It is a centre for both ecotourism and adventure tourism, and has a high reputation among caving enthusiasts due to several prominent cave systems around Takaka Hill and Mount Owen.Many people believe Nelson has the best climate in New Zealand, in that it regularly tops the national statistics for sunshine hours, with an annual average total of over 2400 hours.

The geographical "Centre of New Zealand" allegedly lies in Nelson; on a hilltop suspiciously convenient to the centre of the city. This supposed "centre" in fact simply marks the point deemed the "centre" for the purposes of early geographical surveys. The true geographical centre lies in a patch of unremarkable dense scrub in a forest on the Spooner Range near Tapawera, 35 kilometres southwest of Nelson.

Nelson serves as a centre for arts and crafts, and each year hosts popular events such as the Nelson Arts Festival, and, in previous years, the annual Wearable Art Awards, although these have now moved to Wellington.

Settlement of Nelson began circa 1100 years ago by Māori. There is evidence the earliest settlements in New Zealand are around the Nelson-Marlborough regions. The earliest recorded iwi in the Nelson district are the Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Tumatakokiri, Ngāti Apa and Rangitane tribes.

Raids from northern tribes in the 1820's, led by Te Rauparaha and his Ngāti Toa, soon decimated the local population and quickly displaced them.

The New Zealand Company in London planned the settlement of Nelson. They intended to buy cheaply from the Māori some 200,000 acres (800 km²) which they planned to divide into one thousand lots and sell (at a considerable profit) to intending settlers. The Company earmarked future profits to finance the free passage of artisans and labourers and their families, and for the construction of public works. However by September 1841 only about one third of the lots had sold. Despite this the Colony pushed

.

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Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Even in the 19th century New Zealand’s relative geographic isolation made necessary a proportionately large industrial labour force engaged in the manufacture and repair of agricultural machinery and in shipbuilding, brewing, and timber processing. After the 1880s the factory processing of farm products swelled these numbers, while the temporary isolation of World Wars I and II stimulated the production of a wide range of manufactured goods that previously had been imported. Protectionist policies first espoused, although weakly, by governments in the late 19th century were strengthened after World War I.

uniquely new zealand
Uniquely New Zealand
  • Due to its long geological isolation since breaking away from the supercontinent Gondwana about 80 million years ago, New Zealand’s plant and animal life has developed down a unique evolutionary path.
  • Many of our native plants and animals are endemic – that is, found nowhere else in the world. The level of endemism among New Zealand plants and animals is one of the highest in the world.
  • The tuatara, moa, kiwi, kokako, saddleback, huia, kakapo, native frogs and giant carnivorous land snails are just some of the species that are uniquely New Zealand.
  • This isolation in the absence of mammalian predators for millions of years also meant that many of our native species were virtually defenceless against attack – for example, many of our native birds like the kiwi are flightless and nest on the ground.
  • When humans – first Maori and then European settlers - arrived in New Zealand, introduced mammals came with them: rats, possums, stoats, ferrets, weasels, deer, pigs, mice, cats, dogs and others.
  • These introduced species quickly took a heavy toll as they preyed and browsed on New Zealand’s largely defenceless native species, or competed with them. Human activities such as felling and burning vegetation and draining wetlands also destroyed much of the native species’ habitats.
  • Native species such as the moa, huia, and the world’s largest-ever eagle, the Haast’s eagle, the South Island kokako and many others became extinct. Many more, such as the takahe, the kakapo and the long-tailed bat were radically reduced in number and remain perilously close to extinction today.
what forest bird is doing to hel p
What Forest & Bird is doing to help
  • Since our formation in 1923, Forest & Bird has played a vital role in turning around the precarious situation of many of our native plants and animals.
  • We have raised public awareness of the unique and special nature of our native wildlife, and have advocated for better protection for these vulnerable species. We also take part in hands-on projects to protect native species through habitat restoration and pest control.
  • Despite the efforts of Forest & Bird and other conservationists, many of our native species remain under threat of extinction. The threats they face, most importantly the threat of introduced pest species, must be better managed if our native plants and animals are to continue to survive.
  • Some of the threatened species we are working to help save include:
  • Kakapo – Forest & Bird is part of the Kakapo Recovery Programme that has helped turn around the decline in the kakapo’s population, which now numbers 86.
  • Whio (blue duck). Forest & Bird works with the Central North Island Blue Duck Trust to restore populations of whio – their population is slowly building.
  • Kiwi – The range of kiwi has been reduced by 20% in recent years (1970s - 2007). Our work with BNZ Save the Kiwi Trust helps protect kiwi from introduced predators so their populations can recover. Eggs are taken from the wild and hatched and the kiwi chicks are raised in predator-proof “kiwi creches” like our Bushy Park reserve till they are big enough to fight off predators.
  • Hihi (stitchbird) – Hihi have been successfully relocated to Ark in the Park, a partnership between Forest & Bird and Auckland Regional Council in the Waitakere Ranges, where they are now breeding successfully safe from predators.
  • Kokako – The range of kokako has been reduced by 90% (1970s to 2007) but recent breeding successes under the Kokako Recovery Programme (in which Forest & Bird is a partner) means their population is now increasing.
  • Albatross – New Zealand is known as the world albatross capital as many of these ocean-going birds are found in our territorial waters. Forest & Bird is part of the international Save the Albatross campaign to help protect albatrosses from by-catch deaths in fisheries.
  • Our nationwide campaigns for more effective pest control and protection and restoration of native habitats means that many more of our native species are better protected and have a better chance of rebuilding their numbers. However, they still need further help to ensure their survival.