loïc wacquant FROM SLAVERY TO MASS INCARCERATION: Rethinking the ‘race question’ in the US. New Left Review 13 jan feb 2002. Social control of African Americans historically managed by several institutions. Racial disproportionality in US imprisonment.
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New Left Review 13 janfeb 2002
“Not crime, but the need to shore up an eroding caste cleavage, along with buttressing the emergent regime of desocialized wage labor to which most blacks are fated by virtue of their lack of marketable cultural capital, and which the most deprived among them resist by escaping into the illegal street economy, is the main impetus behind the stupendous expansion of America’s penal state in the post-Keynesian age and its de facto policy of ‘carceral affirmative action’ towards African-Americans” (p. 44)
[B. Fields and K. Fields, Racecraft: The Soul of Inequality in American Life, Verso, 2012]