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Chapter 2 Personality & Values. Individuals & Personality. Personality: Sum total of ways people react and interact with others (set of psychological traits that make each person different). Ques. 1: What are its dimensions? Ques. 2: How is it measured?

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Chapter 2 personality values

Chapter 2Personality & Values

Individuals personality
Individuals & Personality

Personality:Sum total of ways people react and interact with others (set of psychological traits that make each person different).

  • Ques. 1: What are its dimensions?

  • Ques. 2: How is it measured?

  • Ques. 3: What is its value for management

    and business applications?

Ques 1 what are its dimensions
Ques. 1: What Are Its Dimensions?

Answer 1: The “Big Five”

  • Most scientifically established and empirically tested framework of personality in the world

  • Individuals vary across five dimensions:

    • Emotional stability

    • Extraversion

    • Openness to experience

    • Agreeableness

    • Conscientiousness

Ques 1 what are its dimensions cont
Ques. 1: What Are Its Dimensions (cont.)?

Answer 2: The MBTI

  • Most popular and widely used in the world

  • Individuals are classified as:

    • Extroverted or Introverted (E or I):

      • Outgoing, sociable, and assertive, vs. quiet, “shy,” and draw energy and strength from within

    • Sensing or Intuitive (S or N):

      • Practical and prefer focusing on details vs. relying on unconscious (intuitive) processes and look at the big picture

    • Thinking or Feeling (T or F):

      • Use reason and logic to handle problems vs. rely on their personal values and emotions

    • Judging or Perceiving (J or P):

      • Like their world to be ordered, structured and controlled vs. flexible and spontaneous

Ques 1 what are its dimensions cont1
Ques. 1: What Are Its Dimensions (cont.)?

Answer 3: Some additional misc. facets:

  • Core Self Evaluation:Degree of one’s self liking or disliking.

  • Self-Monitoring:Sensitivity to situational cues and the capacity to modify or adapt one’s behavior as appropriate.

  • Locus of Control:Propensity to actively take initiative, and to identify and pursue (even create) new opportunities.

  • Risk Propensity:Willingness and comfort in taking chances.

  • Machiavellianism:Tendency to manipulate and maintain emotional distance to achieve one’s aims.

  • Type A/B Personality:Type A is aggressive, impatient and incessantly struggling to achieve more (while B is opposite).

Ques 2 how is personality measured
Ques. 2: How Is Personality Measured?

Answer: Typical methods for measuring:

  • Self-report inventories (most common):

    • NEO PI-R

    • CPI

    • MBTI

    • many others....

  • Clinical evaluations:

    • MMPI

  • Projective tests:

    • TAT (similar to “ink blots”)

Ques 3 business and mgmt applications
Ques. 3: Business and Mgmt. Applications

The more typical business applications:

  • Employee development and coaching

  • Making hiring decisions:

    • What personality facets should be used?

    • What job performance criteria?

    • Interaction with job and contextual elements?

      • job requirements

      • organization’s culture

      • situation cues (“strong” vs. “weak” situations)

  • What is “predictive success” of using personality?

Individuals and values
Individuals and Values

  • Values defined as:

    • Stable, long-lasting beliefs and preferences about what is worthwhile and desirable

    • A mode of conduct or end state that is personally or socially desirable (what is right or good).

  • Values can be classified (e.g., Rokeach)

  • Values vary by cohort groups

  • Values vary by cultural identity

  • Knowledge about personality and values can help improve an employee’s “fit”

Personality job fit holland s hexagon
Personality-Job Fit:Holland’s Hexagon

  • Vocational Preference Inventory Questionnaire

  • Job satisfaction and turnover depend on congruency between personality and task

    • Fields adjacent are similar

    • Field opposite are dissimilar

Person organization fit
Person-Organization Fit

It appears more important that employees’ personalities fit with the organization’s culture than with the specific characteristics of a given job.

A good fit helps predict job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover.

From the rokeach values survey
From the Rokeach Values Survey

Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).

From the rokeach values survey1
From the Rokeach Values Survey

Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973).

Dominant work values by cohort groups
Dominant Work Values by Cohort Groups

Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications,” in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.) Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123–44.

National culture and values

Rules, Laws

Stories of Heroes

Language, Food

Physical Structures






National Culture and Values

Artifacts of


Core of


Hofstede s framework for assessing cultures
Hofstede’s Frameworkfor Assessing Cultures

  • Power distance

  • Individualism vs. collectivism

  • Achievement vs. nurturing

  • Uncertainty avoidance

  • Long-term vs. short-term orientation

Globe studies framework for assessing cultures


Future Orientation

Gender Differentiation

Uncertainty Avoidance

Power Distance


In-Group Collectivism

Performance Orientation

Humane Orientation

“GLOBE” Studies Frameworkfor Assessing Cultures

Importance of values
Importance of Values

  • Help us make sense of attitudes, motivation, and behaviors.

  • Influence our perceptions of the world.

  • Give us answers about right and wrong (and thus have implications for business ethics)

  • Values, by definition, mean some behaviors or outcomes are more preferredthan others.