ServSafe Chapter 9 Principles of a HACCP System
GOALS TO FOCUS ON: • What is HACCP? • Developing a HACCP Plan
OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, you should be able to: • Identify the flow of a food through an establishment. • Discuss the importance of prerequisite programs for a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system. • Define HACCP
Identify the HACCP principles for food safety. • Discuss how HACCP is important to food safety. • Identify Critical Control Points (CCP’s) for various foods and processes.
Key Terms • Hazards • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) • HACCP plan • Prerequisite programs • Hazard analysis • Control point (CP) • Critical Control Point (CCP) • Critical limit • Monitoring • Corrective action • Verification
Hazards (biological, chemical, or physical agents that may cause illness or injury if not controlled) throughout the flow of food. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) This system is a dynamic process that uses a combination of proper foodhandling procedures, monitoring techniques, and record keeping to help ensure that the food you serve is safe.
HACCP Plana written document, based on HACCP principles, which describes the procedures a particular establishment will follow.
What is HACCP? Developed by the Pillsbury Company in the early 1960s for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Based on the ides that if biological, chemical. Or physical hazards are identified at specific points within the flow of food, they can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels.
The National Restaurant Association and the Food and Drug Administration recommend that all foodservice facilities, no matter how large or small, develop a HACCP system.
A HACCP system helps you to do the following: • Identify the foods and procedures that are most likely to cause foodborne illness. • Develop procedures that will reduce the risk of a foodborne illness outbreak. • Monitor procedures to keep food safe. • Verify that the food you serve is consistently safe.
Prerequisite programssupport your HACCP plan and are the basic operating conditions for producing safe food. Prerequisite programs are standard operating procedures (SOPs) which protect your food from contamination, minimize microbial growth, and ensure the proper functioning of equipment.
A prerequisite program may include the following: • Proper personal hygiene • Proper facility design • Choosing good suppliers • Creating supplier specifications • Proper cleaning and sanitation • Appropriate equipment maintenance
Developing a HACCP Plan A HACCP plan is a written document that describes the procedures a particular establishment will follow. A HACCP plan is developed using the HACCP principles and is specific to the facility, its menu, its equipment, its processes, and its operations.
HACCP Principles Each HACCP principle builds upon the information gained from the previous principle. For the plan to be complete, you must consider all seven principles in order. The plan you develop will be based on the seven basic HACCP principles. • Principles one,two, and three help you design your system. • Principles four and five help you implement it. • Principles six and seven help you maintain the system and verify its effectiveness.
Hazard Analysis (Principle 1) Conduct a Hazard Analysis by identifying and assessing potential hazards in the food service (biological, chemical, and physical). Hazard analysis is the process of identifying and evaluating potential hazards associated with foods, in order to decide which must be addressed in a HACCP plan. The hazard analysis is key to developing where hazards may occur in the flow of food if care is not taken to prevent or control them.
Key Steps to follow to identify all potential hazards in your establishment*Identify potential food hazards.Exhibit9b*Determine where hazards can occur in the flow of foods.Exhibit 9c
* Group foods by processes.Exhibit 9d • Foods that are prepared and served without cooking(salads, raw oysters, cheeses, and sandwich meats). • Foods that are prepared and cooked for immediate service(hamburgers, scrambled eggs, and hot sandwiches). • Foods that will be prepared, cooked, held, cooled, reheated, and served(chili, soups, and sauces).
* Identify your customers. • Very young • elderly • people who are ill
Determine Critical Control Points (Principle 2) Control point (CP) is any step in the flow of food where a physical, chemical, or biological hazard can be controlled. Critical Control Point (CCP) is the last step where you can intervene to prevent, control, or eliminate the growth of microorganisms before the food is served to customers. Exhibit 9e
Establish Critical Limits (Principle 3) Critical limits are minimum and maximum limits that the CCP must meet in order to prevent, eliminate, or reduce a hazard to an acceptable limit. The limits must be: • Measurable (such as a time or a temperature) • Based on scientific data, such as (FDA Model Food Code) • Appropriate for the food and equipment when prepared under normal conditions, and specific to your establishment • Clear and easy to follow
Monitoring Critical Control Points (Principle 4) Monitoring lets you know that critical limits are being met. To develop a successful monitoring program, you need to consider the following. Establish clear directions that will determine the following: • How to monitor the CCP. • When and how often to monitor the CCP. • Who will monitor the CCP. • Equipment, materials, or tools needed to monitor the CCP.Exhibit 9g
Taking Corrective Action (Principle 5) Corrective actions are predetermined steps taken when food doesn’t meet a critical limit. The last opportunity you have to ensure the safety of the food served. Corrective actions may be: Exhibit 9h • Cook the food • Throw food away • Rejecting a shipment
Verify that the System Works (Principle 6) Verification confirms that the system you developed works according to the plan. Verify that the: • CCPs and critical limits are appropriate • Monitoring alerts you to hazards • Corrective actions are adequate • Employees are following established procedures.
Record Keeping and Documentation (Principle 7) Proper records allow you to document that you are continuously preparing and serving safe food. Examples of records include: • Time-temperature logs • Procedures for taking temperatures • Standard operating procedures (SOPs) • Calibration records • Corrective actions • Monitoring schedules • Product specifications
Training Training is critical in making a HACCP plan successful. To do this effectively, consider the following: • Help management staff understand the importance of food safety and the benefits of HACCP. • Train staff (management and employees)to perform specific tasks required by the HACCP plan.
A good training program should: • Explain the importance of what the staff is learning. • Demonstrate steps and procedures. • Let employees practice. • Give feedback on their performance. • Review materials. • Test employees on their knowledge. • Retrain if needed. • Evaluate employees on job performance as well as their food-safety practices. • Encourage employee involvement regarding food-safety issues.