SERVSAFE/Chapter 2 THE MICROWORLD
Microorganisms… • Small, living organisms • Harmful microorganisms are called pathogens • Cause foodborne illness
TYPES OF PATHOGENS • Viruses • Bacteria • Parasites • Fungi
VIRUSES • Leading cause of foodborne illness • Cannot grow in food, but can survive cooler and freezer temperatures • Key to prevention is good personal hygiene
BACTERIA • Usually controlled by keeping food out of the temperature danger zone • Some bacteria can change into spores to keep from dying when they don’t have enough food • Multiplies quickly under the right conditions
PARASITES • Must be in the meat of another animal in order to survive • Can contaminate both food and water…particularly water used to irrigate produce • Method of prevention would be to purchase food from a reputable supplier
FUNGI • Sometimes makes people sick • Mostly spoils food • Examples are mold and yeast • Any food spoiled by mold or yeast should be thrown out, unless the mold is a natural part of the product
WHAT PATHOGENS NEED TO GROW • FOOD • ACIDITY • TEMPERATURE • TIME • OXYGEN • MOISTURE
Pathogens grow well in food held between the temperatures of 41 degrees F. and 135 degrees F. • You can help keep food safe by controlling FAT TOM • Viruses are the leading cause of foodborne illness.
Fish toxins… • Can be a natural part of the fish or made by pathogens on it. • Some occur when fish eat smaller fish that have the toxin. • Shellfish toxins are caused by marine algae that have a toxin, which the shellfish then eats
SEAFOOD TOXINS • Scombroid Poisoning • Ciguatera Fish Poisoning • Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning • Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning • Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning
Mushroom toxins… • Foodborne illness linked with mushrooms are almost always caused by eating toxic, wild mushrooms collected by amateur hunters.