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Chapter 1 Nutrition Basics. Nutrition Through the Life Cycle Judith E. Brown. Foods provide energy (calories), nutrients, and other substances needed for growth & health. Calorie—a measure of the amount of energy transferred from food to the body

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Chapter 1 nutrition basics

Chapter 1 Nutrition Basics

Nutrition Through the Life Cycle

Judith E. Brown



Essential nutrients
Essential Nutrients substances needed for growth & health.

  • Nutrients the body cannot manufacture are “essential” in the diet. We must consume them. They include:

    • Carbohydrates

    • Certain amino acids—”building blocks” of proteins

    • Essential fatty acids: linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid

    • Vitamins & minerals

    • Water


Factors that impact nutrient needs

Age substances needed for growth & health.

Body size

Gender

Genetic traits

Growth

Illness

Lifestyle habits

Medications

Pregnancy and lactation

Factors that Impact Nutrient Needs


Dietary intake standards
Dietary Intake Standards substances needed for growth & health.

  • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

    • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)

    • Adequate Intakes (AIs)

    • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs)

    • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)


Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates substances needed for growth & health.

  • Simple carbohydrates

    • Monosaccharides

    • Disaccharides

  • Complex carbohydrates

    • Starches

    • Glycogen

    • Fiber

  • Alcohol sugars


Carbohydrates1
Carbohydrates substances needed for growth & health.

  • Recommended intake level

    • 45-65% of calories

    • Added sugar: 25% or less of calories

    • 21-35 g fiber/day for females

    • 30-38 g fiber/day for males

  • Food sources

    • Widely distributed in plant foods

    • Milk is only animal source

    • Refer to Table 1.5


Protein
Protein substances needed for growth & health.

  • Amino acids—”building blocks” of proteins

    • Essential—body cannot make; must be provided in diet

    • Nonessential—body can make

  • Protein quality—high-quality proteins provide all essential amino acids

  • Recommended intake

    • 10-35% of calories

  • Food sources (refer to Table 1.6)


Fats lipids

Fats—a subclass of lipids substances needed for growth & health.

Fats = solid at room temperature

Oils = liquid at room temperature

Triglycerides— glycerol with 3 fatty acids attached

Fats (Lipids)


Essential fatty acids
Essential Fatty Acids substances needed for growth & health.

  • Essential fatty acids

    • Linoleic acid (omega-6)

    • Alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3)

  • Omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio

    • Desirable ratio is 4 or less omega-6 to 1 omega-3

    • Many Americans have a 9 to 1 (or more!) omega-6 to omega-3 intake


Recommended intake of fats
Recommended Intake of Fats substances needed for growth & health.

  • Not all fats are created equal

  • “Unhealthful” fats

    • Those that raise LDL-cholesterol

    • Examples: Trans and saturated fats and cholesterol

  • “Healthful” fats

    • Those that raise HDL-cholesterol

    • Examples: Monounsatured, polyunsaturated, linolenic, EPA, and DHA


Vitamins
Vitamins substances needed for growth & health.

  • Water-soluble vitamins (see table 1.8)

    • Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, B6, folate, B12, biotin, pantothenic acid, C

  • Fat-soluble vitamins (see table 1.8)

    • A, D, E, K

  • Functions (refer to Table 1.9 )

    • Coenzymes

    • Antioxidants


Water
Water substances needed for growth & health.

  • Adults are 60-70% water

  • Recommended daily intakes

    • 12-16 cups for males

    • 11 cups for females

    • 75% from fluids; 25% from foods

  • Dietary sources

    • Best to drink water & nonalcoholic, non-caffeinated beverages

    • Alcohol/caffeine increase water loss through urine




The life course approach to nutrition and health
The Life-Course Approach to Nutrition and Health inadequately nourished than others

Healthy individuals require the same nutrients throughout life.

Amounts of nutrients vary based on age, growth and development.

Diets may be defined by cultures and religions.


Meeting nutritional needs
Meeting Nutritional Needs inadequately nourished than others

  • Dietary Considerations Based on Ethnicity

  • Dietary Considerations Based on Religion

    • Hindus

    • Buddhists

    • Sikhism

    • Mormons

    • Seventh-Day Adventists

    • Jews

    • Muslims


Nutritional assessment
Nutritional Assessment inadequately nourished than others

  • Community-level assessment

    • Assessing a community’s “state of nutritional health”

    • Uses statistics data, surveys, observations

  • Individual-level assessment

    • Nutrition assessment of individual

      • Clinical/physical assessment

      • Dietary assessment

      • Anthropometric assessment

      • Biochemical assessment data


Individual assessment
Individual Assessment inadequately nourished than others

  • Clinical/physical assessment

    • Inspection for features that may be related to malnutrition

  • Dietary assessment

    • 24-hour dietary recalls and records

    • Dietary history

    • Food frequency questionnaires

    • Resources: instruments and computer software


Individual assessment1
Individual Assessment inadequately nourished than others

  • Anthropometric assessment

    • Measurements of body size and shape

  • Biochemical assessment

    • Nutrient and enzyme levels

    • DNA characteristics

    • Other biological markers


Nationwide priorities for improvements
Nationwide Priorities for Improvements inadequately nourished than others

  • U.S. Nutrition and Health Guidelines

  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • MyPyramid Food Guide

  • Healthy People 2010: Objectives for the Nation

  • The DASH Diet

  • The Mediterranean Diet