Nutrition Basics Nutrition and Wellness Energy and the 6 Basic Nutrients
What is Nutrition? • Nutrition is the science of food, their components, and how they are used by the body. • Food satisfies two main needs: • Physical – growth and repair of the body • Psychological – provides security, belonging, and enjoyment • Adequately meeting both of these needs, along with other needs in life, one aims to find wellness.
Wellness • Wellness is a philosophy that encourages people to take responsibility for their own health. It focuses on the overall health of a person, rather than just physical health. It considers social, emotional, and intellectual health. • Wellness is reflected in both your attitudes and behaviours.
Decisions that influence your health • your food choices • amount of physical activity • management of feelings and emotions • social situations • how much sleep you get
Wellness Checklist • I eat breakfast, lunch, and dinner every day. • I get 7-9 hours of sleep each night. • I restrict the amount of sugary drinks and junk food I consume. • I exercise for at least one hour a day. • When I have a problem I deal with it in the best way. • I avoid procrastination. • I have a social group that supports me in a positive way. • I refrain from abusing drugs and alcohol. • I rarely start arguments with people, and try for win-win situations.
Wellness Checklist • I try to have at least one day a week where I avoid meat products. • I take time to relax away from distractions daily. • I take time away from my cell phone especially when I am sleeping. • I always where seat belts, helmets, safety protection, etc. when necessary. • I form positive relationships. • I drink enough water (5-6 glasses of water a day) • I look for the good things in every situation I am in.
Wellness • Practicing wellness does not guarantee you will never get sick or upset. • It will, however, help you achieve the highest level of overall health and wellness possible.
Two Best Things for Mind and Body • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aUaInS6HIGo&safe=active • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F6eFFCi12v8&safe=active • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7jrnj-7YKZE&feature=related&safe=active 3:40 • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnwIKZhrdt4&safe=active
Nutrition • Who studies nutrition? • Doctors • Dietitians • Nutritionists • Fitness Consultants • Sport Trainers • Athletes • Food Scientists • Chefs, Bakers • Food Development Engineers • Life coaches • Nutrition Teacher • Farmers • Anyone who reads a nutritional label
6 Big Ideas • Balance • Variety • Adequacy • Moderation • Nutrient Density • Calorie Control
Is your Diet… • Balance – When the diet is not pushed to far in any way. • For example, eating only cheesy potato fries • Restricting yourself from eating any carbohydrates simply for weight loss reasons.
Does your diet have variety? • Variety – Including foods from all food groups, tastes and colours. • For example, if apples are the only fruit you eat, you are missing nutrients you would get from oranges, bananas, pineapple, mangos, peaches, etc. • Not just eating grains in the form of bread. Try pastas, bulgur, couscous, quinoa
Do you achieve • Adequacy – getting the required amount of specific nutrients and calories. Getting enough. • Are you restricting yourself from eating according to your hunger? • Do you have a nutrient deficiency, such as calcium deficiency? • Are you malnourished?
What about… • Moderation – a healthy diet can include all foods but are you limiting the amount of “bad foods” in your diet? • For example, limiting high fat and sugary foods. • Limiting treats like cake to once a week, a flurry to once a month, and pop to every four days.
How nutritious is your food? • Nutrient Density – foods can be high or low in nutrients. They might be high in something like carbohydrates but be low in all other nutrients. • Choose foods high in nutrient density and low in calories is always the best choice. You get to eat more and get more nutrients from it. • Chips – high in calories, low in nutrients • Vegetables – very low in calories, high in nutrients
Practice but don’t obese over • Calorie Control – Monitoring the amount of calories you take in throughout the day. • This does not mean you can never go over you recommended calorie intake, but it should be balanced. Meaning on another day, you should have less calories. • For example, by eating a extra meal of 400 calories each day in foods class, after one week you have taken in 2000 extra calories. Roughly a days worth of food.
Nutrients • Nutrients are the chemicals from food that your body uses to carry out its functions. • give you energy to carry on bodily processes and enjoy life • grow and repair body cells and tissues • allow your brain to function • basically keep you alive
6 Basic Nutrient Categories No one nutrient can be a suitable replacement for any other. If any one of the six main nutrients is missing, your body—and your health–suffers. • Water • Carbohydrates • Fats • Proteins • Vitamins • Minerals
Nutrient Deficiency… • Is essentially a severe shortage of one or more nutrients. • Example: Kwashiorkor - protein deficiency Scurvy – vitamin C deficiency
Malnutrition • Refers to serious health problems caused by poor nutrition over a prolonged period. • Generally occurs when people don’t get enough to eat. • Usually results from poverty in most cities and countries. • Bad weather, inadequate transportation, political problems can cause food shortages.
Over-nutrition • Over-nutrition is a type of malnutrition in which nutrients are oversupplied relative to the amounts required for normal growth, development, and metabolism. • Results in obesity from an excess of calories • calorie intake is greater than calorie output • or…
Nutrient Toxicity • Occurs when excess of a nutrient causes harm to an organism. • Not as common as deficiencies. May occur when: • kids get into vitamin mineral supplements • toxic well water • over supplementation
So how much do you need? • Canadian and American scientists have created a set of standards for the nutrient needs of people of different ages, genders, and special circumstances (pregnancy). • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) • Used to assess the nutritionals status of healthy people • considered when making safety regulations • Provide standards for food fortification • Used by food industry for product development and nutritional labels
How nutrients are measured • You may see nutrients labeled in different ways: • Grams (g) • Milligrams (mg) • Micrograms (ug) • For example, female teens need 15 mg of iron. That’s equivalent to an amount about the size of a single dry bean.
What is Energy? • Everything you do requires energy. Sleeping, eating, walking, sitting, breathing, running, etc. • Your body gets it’s energy from food. • Energy is measured is units called kilocalories or calories. • A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius.
Your Energy Needs • Energy needs during teenage years vary depending on age, size, sex, and activity level. • It could range from 2000 to 2600 calories. • Males generally need more than females.
Energy • You only get calories from 4 nutrients: • Carbohydrates: 4 calories per gram • Protein: 4 calories per gram • Alcohol: 7 calories per gram • Fat: 9 calories per gram • Things like sleep, caffeine, and other stimulants do not give you energy.
Breaking it down • 30% of your calories should come from fat • 55% from carbohydrates • 15 from protein • Question: If you need 2200 calories a day how many grams of fat, proteins, and carbohydrates should you have?
Math • Fat 2200 x .3 = 660 calories • 660/9 = 73 grams • Carbs 2200 x .55 =1210 calories • 1210/4 = 302 grams • Protein 2200 x .15 = 330 calories • 330/4 = 82 grams
Get a can and figure out the amount of calories using the amount of fats, carbs, protein.