Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills & Concepts Chapter 14 THE LIFE CYCLE
Basic Concepts of Growth and Development • Growth - measurable changes in the physical size of the body and its parts. • Development - behavioral changes in functional abilities and skills. • Maturation - the process of becoming full grown. Development occurs continuously Throughout the life span.
Remember! • There are no absolute rules in predicting the exact rate of development for any given individual.
Factors Influencing Growth andDevelopment • Heredity. • Life Experiences. • Health Status. • Cultural Expectations.
Major Developmental Theories • Physiological Dimension. • Psychosocial Dimension. • Cognitive Dimension. • Moral Dimension. • Spiritual Dimension.
Psychosocial Dimension:Self-Concept • Self-concept is one’s perception of oneself, including body image, self-esteem and ideal self. • Characteristics of positive self-help include: • Self-confidence. • Willingness to take risks. • Ability to receive criticism without becoming defensive. • Ability to adapt effectively to stressors. • Innovative problem-solving skills.
Psychosocial Dimension:Intrapsychic Theory • Focuses on unconscious processes. • Feelings, needs, conflicts, and drives are considered to be motivators of behavior, learning, and development. • Key theorists include Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and Robert Havighurst.
Psychosocial Dimension:Intrapersonal Theory • Theorizes that relationships with others influence how one’s personality develops. • Key theorist is Harry Stack Sullivan.
Cognitive Dimension Key theorist is Jean Piaget, who enumerates four phases of intellectual development: • Sensorimotor • Preoperational • Concrete operations • Formal operations
Moral Dimension • The moral dimension consists of a person’s value system, which helps differentiate right from wrong. • Moral maturity is the ability to independently decide for oneself what is “right.” • Key theorist is Lawrence Kohlberg, who describes six stages of moral development.
Spiritual Dimension • The spiritual dimension is characterized by a sense of personal meaning. • Spirituality refers to relationships with one’s self, with others, and with a higher power or divine source. • Key theorist is J.W. Fowler, who outlines six distinct stages of faith development.
Holistic Framework for Nursing • Nursing’s holistic perspective recognizes the progression of individual development across the life span.
Prenatal Neonatal Infant Toddler Preschooler School-age Preadolescent Adolescent Young adult Middle adult Older adult 11 Developmental Stages ofThe Life Cycle
Nursing Implications To teach new mothers how to relax thereby promoting a supportive environment for developing embryo and fetus. Wellness Promotion Proper Nutrition. Screening. Counseling. Promoting use of alternative modalities to reduce stress. Prenatal Period
Nursing Implications In first few hours after birth, nurse should encourage parents to cuddle the newborn, explain the neonate’s interactive abilities, and encourage mutual eye contact. Wellness Promotion Assessing neonate’s physiological status. Providing warm environment. Monitoring nutritional status. Conducting screening tests. Neonatal Period
Nursing Implications Focus on safety, prevention of infection, and teaching parents to incorporate child into the family. Wellness Promotion Teaching growth and development concepts. Teaching benefits of breastfeeding. Advocating administration of necessary immunizations. Infancy
Nursing Implications Awareness of child’s anxiety with strangers. Play is effective tool for building rapport with children of this age. Wellness Promotion Teaching proper hygiene to prevent infections. Nutritional counseling. Toddler Period
Nursing Implications Play is a tool that can be used by nurses to alleviate fear and anxiety in children of this age. Wellness Promotion Teaching health education. Keeping immunization records. Preschool Period
Nursing Implications & Wellness Promotion Cautioning against accidents. Health promotion teaching. School-Age Period
Nursing Implications Sensitivity. Nonjudgmental approach. Attention to body language. Wellness Promotion Information about lifestyle: nutrition, rest. Teaching about physiological changes occurring, including growth spurt and sexual change. Preadolescence
Nursing Implications Need to encourage adolescents to share their health concerns with parents, but must honor adolescent’s choice to withhold sensitive information. Wellness Promotion Health education regarding hygiene, nutrition, sex education, developmental changes, and substance abuse prevention. Adolescence
Nursing Implications This age group takes health for granted. Nurses must recognize the dangers in that. Wellness Promotion Fostering avoidance of accidents, injury, and violence. Advocating development of health-promoting behaviors. Young Adulthood
Nursing Implications Health more fragile. Nurses can help identify risk factors and provide early intervention. Wellness Promotion Encourage clients to assume more responsibility for their own health. Encourage influenza and pneumococcal immunizations. Middle Adulthood
Nursing Implications To help older adults achieve a sense of well-being. Encourage family members to participate in positive life review with elderly client. Wellness Promotion Aim for functional independence. Promote regular physical activity, a positive mental attitude, and developing and maintaining healthy lifestyles. Older Adulthood