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Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills & Concepts Chapter 13. ALTERNATIVE/ COMPLEMENTARY THERAPIES. Nontraditional Therapies. Ever increasing numbers of health care consumers are using nontraditional treatment modalities. Complementary & Alternative Therapies:.

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Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills & Concepts Chapter 13

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basic nursing foundations of skills concepts chapter 13

Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills & Concepts Chapter 13




nontraditional therapies
Nontraditional Therapies
  • Ever increasing numbers of health care consumers are using nontraditional treatment modalities.
complementary alternative therapies
Complementary & Alternative Therapies:
  • Alternative Therapies are used instead of conventional or mainstream medical modalities.
  • Complementary Therapies are used in conjunction with conventional or mainstream medical modalities.
roots of nontraditional therapies
Roots of Nontraditional Therapies
  • Ancient Greece: massage, art therapy, herbal therapy.
  • The Far East: Energetic-touch therapies.
  • China: Acupuncture, herbalism.
  • India: Ayurvedic medicine.
the shamanistic tradition
The Shamanistic Tradition
  • Shamanism refers to the practice of entering altered states of consciousness with the intent of helping others.
  • The shaman is a folk healer-priest.
modern trends
Modern Trends
  • Mind/Body Medicine and Research.
  • Holism and Nursing Practice.

Modern medicine is looking to nontraditional

medicine for insight into two main areas:

mind body medicine and research
Mind/Body Medicine and Research
  • The traditional medical model is founded on the belief that the mind, body, and spirit are separate entities. A relatively new field of science, however, is called: Psychoneuroimmunology.
  • The study of the complex relationship among the cognitive, affective, and physical aspects of humans.


  • The inseparable connection and operation of thoughts, feelings, and physiological functions.
holism and nursing practice
Holism and Nursing Practice

As a healing facilitator, the nurse enters into a relationship with the client and can be a:

  • Guide.
  • change agent.
  • instrument of healing.
nurse as instrument of healing
Nurse as Instrument of Healing
  • Knowledge base.
  • Intentionality (having conscious direction of goals).
  • Respect for differences.
  • Ability to model wellness.

To serve in this capacity, a nurse should

develop the following attributes:

using alternative complementary therapies
Using Alternative & Complementary Therapies
  • Have a nonjudgmental attitude.
  • Ask clients if they use nontraditional therapies.
  • Get instruction in these therapies before trying to administer them.
  • Try one or two basic therapies (e.g. massage or guided imagery).
  • Discuss a therapy with the client before using it.
common elements of alternative complementary interventions
Common Elements of Alternative & Complementary Interventions
  • The whole system is considered.
  • The person is integrated and related to the surroundings.
  • There exists some life force or energy to be used in the healing process.
  • Ritual, prescribed practice and skilled practitioners are vital to holistic healing interventions.
mind body self regulatory techniques
Mind/Body (Self-Regulatory) Techniques
  • Methods by which an individual can, independently or with assistance, consciously control some functions of the sympathetic nervous system (e.g. heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure).
leading mind body techniques
Leading Mind/Body Techniques
  • Meditation
  • Relaxation
  • Imagery
  • Biofeedback
  • Hypnosis
  • Quieting the mind by focusing the attention.
  • Benefits include: stress relief, relaxation, reduced level of lactic acid, decreased oxygen consumption, slowed heart rate, decreased blood pressure, improved functioning of the immune system.
  • A therapeutic process incorporating the basic elements of meditation.
  • Basic elements include: a quiet environment, a comfortable position, focused attention, a passive attitude, practice.
  • A technique of using the imagine to visualize a soothing, pleasant image.
  • Benefits include: decreased physical tension, anxiety, and the adverse effects of chemotherapy.
  • The measurement of physiological responses that yields information about the relationship between the body and mind and helps clients learn ways to manipulate those responses through mental activity.
uses of biofeedback
Uses of Biofeedback
  • A restorative method in rehabilitation settings for clients who have lost sensation and function as result of injury or illness.
  • To relieve tension headaches, migraines and backache.
  • To reduce bruxism (grinding of the teeth) To lower blood pressure.
  • Temperature biofeedback useful in treating Raynaud’s disease.
therapeutic hypnosis
Therapeutic Hypnosis
  • Induces an altered state of consciousness or awareness resembling sleep during which the person is more receptive to suggestion.
  • Hypnosis also enhances client’s ability to form images (for guided imagery).
body movement therapies
Body-Movement Therapies
  • Therapies employing techniques of moving or manipulating various body parts to achieve therapeutic outcomes.
leading body movement strategies
Leading Body-Movement Strategies
  • Movement and Exercise
  • Yoga
  • Tai Chi
  • Chiropractic Therapy
energetic touch therapies
Energetic-Touch Therapies
  • Techniques of using the hands to direct or redirect the flow of the body’s energy fields and thus enhance balance within those fields.
leading energetic touch therapies
Leading Energetic-Touch Therapies
  • Therapeutic massage
  • Therapeutic touch
  • Healing touch
  • Shiatsu
  • Acupressure
  • Reflexology
cultural considerations of touch
Cultural Considerations of Touch
  • Ask permission before touching a client.
  • Tell the client what is going to happen.
  • The meaning of touch and the body areas acceptable to touch vary from culture to culture.
leading spiritual therapies
Leading Spiritual Therapies
  • Faith healing.
  • Healing Prayer.
  • Shamanism.

Spiritual therapies can be helpful

modalities in caring for clients. Important

spiritual therapies include:

leading nutritional medicinal therapies
Leading Nutritional/Medicinal Therapies
  • Phytochemicals.
  • Antioxidants and Free Radicals.
  • Macrobiotic Diet.
  • Herbal Therapy.
  • Non-nutritive, physiologically active compounds present in plants in very small amounts.
  • Protect against cancer and prevent heart disease, stroke, and cataracts.
  • Source: fruits and vegetables.
antioxidants and free radicals
Antioxidants and Free Radicals
  • Antioxidants: substances that prevent or inhibit oxidation, a chemical process whereby a substance is joined to oxygen.
  • Free radicals: Antioxidants prevent tissue damage related to these, which are unstable molecules that alter genetic codes and trigger the development of cancer growth.
other important methodologies
Other Important Methodologies
  • Aromatherapy.
  • Humor.
  • Pet Therapy.
  • Music Therapy.
  • Play Therapy.
important terms associated with treatment modalities
Important Terms Associated with Treatment Modalities
  • Proven - have been scientifically tested in clinical trials.
  • Experimental - are undergoing FDA investigations.
  • Untested - have not been investigated by FDA.
  • Folklore - passed through generations.
  • Quackery - no proven effectiveness, may harm consumer.