basic nursing foundations of skills concepts chapter 20 l.
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Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills & Concepts Chapter 20. SAFETY/HYGIENE. Safety. The number one priority in providing client care. Prevention is the key to safety. Factors Affecting Safety. Age. Lifestyle. Sensory and Perceptual Alterations. Mobility.

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  • The number one priority in providing client care.
  • Prevention is the key to safety.
factors affecting safety
Factors Affecting Safety
  • Age.
  • Lifestyle.
  • Sensory and Perceptual Alterations.
  • Mobility.
  • Emotional State.
causes of accidents in the health care setting
Causes of Accidents in the Health Care Setting
  • Client behavior accidents (e.g. poisoning, burns, self-inflicted cuts and bruises).
  • Therapeutic procedure accidents (medication errors, falls during transfers, contamination of sterile instruments or wounds, etc.).
  • Equipment accidents (malfunctioning or improper use of medical equipment).
  • The science of health.
  • Promotes cleanliness, provides for comfort and relaxation, improves self-image, promotes healthy skin.
factors influencing hygiene
Factors Influencing Hygiene
  • Body Image.
  • Social and Cultural Practices.
  • Personal Preferences.
  • Socioeconomic Status.
  • Knowledge.
cultural considerations and hygiene
Cultural Considerations and Hygiene
  • Some cultures do not permit women to immerse their bodies in water during menstruation for fear they will drown.
  • In North America, people typically bathe daily and use deodorants.
  • In Europe, many people do not bathe daily or use deodorants.
nursing process assessment
What things do you do to stay healthy?

Do you need assistance with bathing and dressing?

Do you regularly visit the eye doctor and dentist?

Do you floss regularly?

Do you wash your hands before preparing food?

Do you keep meats and dairy products refrigerated before using?

Is there a smoke detector or fire extinguisher in your home?

Nursing Process: Assessment
assessment appraisals
Assessment: Appraisals

Nurses will assess clients for risk with two main tools:

  • Skin Integrity Risk Appraisal.
  • Fall Risk Appraisal.
nursing diagnosis
Nursing Diagnosis

After data collection and analysis, the main nursing diagnoses that relate to safety and hygiene deficits are:

  • Injury, Risk for.
  • Risk for.
  • Self-Care Deficits.
7 subcategories of risk
Aspiration, Risk for.

Disuse Syndrome, Risk for.

Poisoning, Risk for.

Suffocation, Risk for.

Trauma, Risk for.

Latex Allergy Response.

Latex Allergy Response, Risk for.

7 Subcategories of Risk
self care deficit
Self-Care Deficit
  • A condition that exists when an individual is not able to perform one or more activities of daily living.
implementation and hygiene
Implementation and Hygiene
  • Implementation involves continual assessment of client health risks and prioritization of such nursing interventions as:
    • Administration of prescribed medications.
    • Provision of balanced nutritional intake.
    • Promotion of adequate rest and exercise.
    • Teaching client about health hazards.
reducing the risk for client falls
Orienting the client to the environment and the call system.

Providing ambulatory aids (e.g. wheelchair or walker).

Placing personal belongings and call light within easy reach.

Proper supervision.

Keeping hospital beds in the lowest position and side rails up.

Using nonslip mats and rugs.

Illuminating the environment.

Reducing the Risk for Client Falls
nursing interventions and prevention of falls
Nursing Interventions and Prevention of Falls
  • Specific nursing interventions aimed at preventing falls include:
    • Wiping up spills.
    • Encouraging use of side rails.
    • Applying restraints.
    • Encouraging use of assistive devices for walking.
    • Using proper body mechanics.
    • Ensure adequate lighting.
    • Removing obstacles.
  • Protective devices used to limit the physical activity of a client or to immobilize a client or extremity.
types of restraints
Types of Restraints
  • Physical (reduces the client’s movement through the application of a device).
  • Chemical (medications used to control a client’s behavior).
acceptable reasons for restraints
Acceptable Reasons for Restraints
  • They are a legitimate part of the medical treatment.
  • All other interventions have been tried first.
  • Other disciplines have been consulted for assistance with the problem.
  • Supporting documentation has been provided.
key elements of restraint documentation
Reason for the restraint.

Method of restraint.

Explanation given to client and family.

Date and time of and client’s response.


Frequency of observation and client’s response.


Assessment of continued need.

Client outcome.

Key Elements of Restraint Documentation
assistive devices for walking
Assistive Devices for Walking
  • Canes.
  • Crutches.
  • Walkers.
  • Wheelchairs.
using proper body mechanics
Using Proper Body Mechanics

The safest way of lifting and moving things is to use these principles of body mechanics:

  • Center of gravity (pelvic area).
  • Base of support (the feet).
  • Body alignment.
fire prevention
Fire Prevention
  • Nursing interventions aimed at preventing or reducing risk of fire include:
    • Clearly marking fire exits.
    • Knowing locations and operation of fire extinguishers.
    • Practicing fire evacuation procedures.
    • Posting emergency phone numbers.
    • Keeping open spaces and hallways clear of clutter.
    • Checking wiring.
    • Educating clients about fire hazards.
reducing exposure to radiation
Reducing Exposure to Radiation
  • Minimizing the time spent in contact with radiation source.
  • Maximizing distance from radiation source.
  • Using appropriate radiation shields.
  • Monitoring radiation exposure with a film badge.
  • Labeling all potentially radioactive material.
  • Never touching dislodged implants or body fluids of person receiving radiation therapy.
nursing interventions and hygiene
Providing clean bed linen.

Reducing noise pollution.

Providing for client’s bathing needs.

Offering back rubs.

Providing perineal care.

Providing foot and toenail care.

Oral care.

Hair care.

Eye, ear and nose care.

Nursing Interventions and Hygiene
bathing clients
Bathing Clients
  • Bathing of clients is an essential component of nursing care that falls into two general categories:
    • Cleansing baths (Shower bath, tub bath).
    • Therapeutic baths (hot, warm, cool, tepid; soak or sitz; oatmeal, cornstarch, or sodium bicarbonate).
providing oral care
Providing Oral Care
  • Common problems occurring in the oral cavity include:
    • Bad breath (halitosis).
    • Cavities (dental caries).
    • Plaque.
    • Periodontal disease (pyorrhea).
    • Inflammation of the gums (gingivitis).
    • Inflammation of the oral mucosa (stomatitis).