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  1. An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Presented by : M. Eftekhari eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  2. Outlines of seminar • Cognitive Science • Philosophical challenge • What is AI? • The Turing Test vs. AI Fields • Artificial Life • The Future of AI eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  3. Cognitive Science • Interdisciplinary study of mind (human consciousness that is separate from the body) and intelligence, embracing philosophy, psychology, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology . • To understand the mind in terms of representation and computation eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  4. Cognitive Science (Continued) • Thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures (Connectionist theories which model thinking using artificial neural networks ) • Mind has mental representations analogous to computer data structures eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  5. Cognitive Science (Continued) • The mind contains such mental representations as logical propositions, rules, concepts, images, and analogies, and that it uses mental procedures such as deduction, search, matching, rotating, and retrieval • Computational aspects and human actions. (Control of body) eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  6. Cognitive Science (History ) Continued … • Ancient Greeks • Aristotle tried to explain the nature of human knowledge • Nineteenth century, experimental psychology developed (Wilhelm Wund ) • Observable stimuli and observable behavioral responses (behaviorism , not consciousness and mental representations ) • Around 1956, the intellectual landscape began to change eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  7. Cognitive Science (History ) Continued … • The capacity of human thinking is limited (Miller ) • The emergence of primitive computers • John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell, and Herbert Simon were founding the field of AI. • Noam Chomsky rejected behaviorist assumptions about language as a learned habit and proposed instead to explain language comprehension in terms of mental grammars consisting of rules . • The six thinkers , the founders of cognitive science and AI. eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  8. Theoretical Approaches • Theories about the nature of the representations and computations which their target is Why do people have a particular kind of intelligent behavior? • Formal Logic • Rules • Concepts • Analogies • Images • Neural Connections eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  9. Outlines of seminar • Cognitive Science • Philosophical challenge • What is AI? • The Turing Test vs. AI Fields • Artificial Life • The Future of AI eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  10. Philosophical challenge • Weak AI (simulation of mind ) • Strong AI (acting as an actual mind ) • Can machines think? (Turing rejected this question) • The challenge of Consciousness and Strong AI • Most of the AI researchers confirm weak AI. eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  11. Outlines of seminar • Cognitive Science • Philosophical challenge • What is AI? • The Turing Test vs. AI Fields • Artificial Life • The Future of AI eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  12. What is AI? Categories for definitions of AI eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  13. What is AI? • The Turing Test: Preliminaries • Designed by Alan Turing (1950) • The Turing test provides a satisfactory operational definition of AI • It’s a behavioral test (i.e., test if a system acts like a human) • Problem: it is difficult to make a mathematical analysis of it eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  14. ? The Turing Test The Turing Test: a computer is programmed well enough to have a conversation with an interrogator (for example through a computer terminal) and passes the test if the interrogator cannot discern if there is a computer or a human at the other end eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  15. The Turing Test vs. AI Fields • Natural language processing (NLP) • Knowledge representation • Automated reasoning • Machine learning • Robotics • Machine Vision eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  16. Outlines of seminar • Cognitive Science • Philosophical challenge • What is AI? • The Turing Test vs. AI Fields • Artificial Life • The Future of AI eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  17. Artificial Life • To more understanding of nature and biology • In order to improve the the AI models. • An Artificial laboratory for Biololgy. (Performing Experiments which are impossible in real world of biology) • AI is a top-down Approach • AL is a down-top Approach • The behavioral aspects of animals such as birds, ants, …. eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  18. Artificial Life • Evolution, Emergence (temperature is caused by molecular interactions in low level ), …. • Van Newman (1950) the father of AL, the reproduction of machines based on cellular automata (Ulman) eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  19. Outlines of seminar • Cognitive Science • Philosophical challenge • What is AI? • The Turing Test vs. AI Fields • Artificial Life • The Future of AI eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  20. The Future of AI • What is the basic of Intelligence ? • The advent of extra-intelligence machines • The advent of spiritual machines and the end of human race.(2099) eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir

  21. Question Time ? Thank you for attention eftekhar@shirazu.ac.ir