PSC 3001 – Introduction to Senior Projects in Science. Dr. Julie Zwiesler-Vollick Dr. Z-V. Two Main Goals for this Course. Readiness for Senior Projects next year LTU Undergraduate learning goals. Sustainability. LTU science graduates should understand
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PSC 3001 – Introduction to Senior Projects in Science Dr. Julie Zwiesler-Vollick Dr. Z-V
Two Main Goals for this Course • Readiness for Senior Projects next year • LTU Undergraduate learning goals
Sustainability • LTU science graduates should understand • How to use their skills to differentiate junk science from sound science and communicate that information to the general public • How their discipline could contribute to environmental science or the science of sustainability • How the decisions they make in planning their research could have an impact on the environment Green Physics
Sustainability • A system is sustainable if it can continue indefinitely without depleting material or energy resources • Think seven generations ahead (about 140 years into the future) and decide whether the decisions you make today would benefit your children seven generations into the future. Green Physics
Sustainable societies • A sustainable society is in balance with the natural world • Continues for generations • Does not deplete its resource base • Does not produce more pollution than nature can absorb • Many of our interactions with nature are not sustainable • Declining biodiversity and ecosystems • Greenhouse gases • Population growth in developing countries • Energy and resource consumption in developed countries • Sustainability means treating as coequals environment, economics, and social justice
Achieving sustainable solutions LTU graduates will demonstrate an awareness of sustainability concepts within their discipline and their impact on the social, economic, and environmental needs of individuals and communities.
Sound science: the scientific method • Many environmental issues are so controversial, people are confused • The scientific method: a way of gaining knowledge • Science: all the knowledge gained through this method • Is legitimate, in contrast with junk science: information that is presented as science but is not • Junk science does not conform to the rigorous methods and practices of legitimate science • Junk science is not science which disagrees with your viewpoint. • Sound science involves using the scientific method to understand how the natural world works
The scientific method • You all should have an intrinsic understanding of this • Explain to the public how this works, when this is done well or when it is not.
Research in “Sustainability” • Some of you may choose projects which have an environmental component Green Physics
Research in “Sustainability” • Two recent chemical biology projects • Pollution in the Rouge River water shed • Lead and Urban Gardening Green Physics
Investigating the genetic diversity of an invasive species – Japanese Knotweed Cari Van Hoorelbeke Japanese Knotweed is an invasive species capable of out-competing native species. It also grows so vigorously that it can damage roads and building foundations. and Dr. Julie Zwiesler-Vollick The Japanese Knotweed Life Cycle How will we determine how Japanese knotweed is spreading? We will examine the genetic diversity present in Japanese Knotweed populations. If sexual reproduction is occurring, we would expect genetic diversity. Japanese Knotweed can reproduce and spread via seeds, or it can propagate clonally from small rhizome fragments. Understanding the primary mode of dispersal of Japanese knotweed in SE Michigan could help the DNR to develop better control strategies. If clonal propagation is occurring, we would expect genetic uniformity.
Sustainability • LTU science graduates should understand • How the decisions they make in planning their research could have an impact on the environment Green Physics
kfdls • As we enter the 21st century, humanity faces enormous challenges in the sustainability of our current lifestyles and systems. There are a number of critical global environmental issues including energy, pollution, transportation, agriculture, land use, construction, water access and use, and ecological destruction. • Every day, engineers and scientists make technical decisions which have significant impact on the environment. These decisions can either move us in the direction of sustainability or contribute to the growing problems.
1. It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it is formed. 2. Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product. 3. Wherever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment. 4. Chemical products should be designed to preserve efficacy of function while reducing toxicity. 5. The use of auxiliary substances (e.g. solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary whenever possible and, innocuous when used. THE TWELVE PRINCIPLES OF GREEN CHEMISTRY
THE TWELVE PRINCIPLES OF GREEN CHEMISTRY 6. Energy requirements should recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure. 7. A raw material feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practical. 8. Unnecessary derivatization (blocking group, protection/deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be avoided whenever possible. 9. Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents.
THE TWELVE PRINCIPLES OF GREEN CHEMISTRY 10. Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and break down into innocuous degradation products. 11. Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances. 12. Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should chosen so as to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.
Biology • Reducing consumables (when possible) • Reducing transport • Thinking about reagents/solvents • Making sure that waste is autoclaved
Physics • Reducing waste • Reducing energy use • Recycling paper/computers
Sustainability Green Physics
The Big Picture • Life Cycle Analysis helps us look at the big picture and understand the full impact of the products we create. http://www.carbondesign.com/sustainability-in-medical-device-design-turning-challenge-into-opportunity
The Big Picture http://www.carbondesign.com/sustainability-in-medical-device-design-turning-challenge-into-opportunity
The Big Picture • Even working with disposables, we can make a real difference by re-examining the medical devices we create through a lens of sustainability. • Where can we reduce the number of disposable elements or the amount of materials involved in these products? • Can we limit the number of different materials to facilitate recycling? • How can we reduce waste in the manufacturing process? • How can we innovate to create a more sustainable solution? • Incremental changes can quickly add up to make a real difference, resulting in more sustainable products, competitive differentiation, and increased profits. http://www.carbondesign.com/sustainability-in-medical-device-design-turning-challenge-into-opportunity
One Success Story The redesign of the packaging for the Stryker hip stem is a wonderful illustration of how integrating packaging design into the development of the whole user experience can preserve safety, reduce waste, and even improve the medical procedure itself. Previously, the stem had been cradled in thick foam pieces in a plastic blister tray which was sealed with Tyvek. The redesign completely eliminated the bulky foam pieces. Instead the stem was packaged in open-ended polyurethane pouch. The hip stems are encased in abrasive coatings so they can be installed without cement. The pouch system not only resulted in a package less than half as thick as the original, it became part of the procedure, allowing the surgeon to safely grip the stem at a critical point in the procedure. http://www.carbondesign.com/sustainability-in-medical-device-design-packaging