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Mammalogy (Fall 2012 Althoff - reference FDVM Chapter 10). LEC 08B. Reproduction - Again A closer “real” look at : __________________ _______________ within an ovary ___________________ in the uterus ___________________ w ithin an ovary __________________ left in uterus.

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Mammalogy (Fall 2012 Althoff - reference FDVM Chapter 10)

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Mammalogy (Fall 2012 Althoff - reference FDVM Chapter 10)



Reproduction - Again A closer “real” look at:_________________________________ within an ovary___________________ in the uterus___________________within an ovary__________________ left in uterus

possible additional role of placenta
Possible additional role of placenta
  • Most emerging research on this comes from study of humans and genetically-engineered mice. Using both blood and spinal fluid from human babies to compare hormone profiles between premature and full-term human babies.
  • Important for _____________________
  • Two key hormones identified so far: a) ___________—helps nerve cells to grow… so impact is beyond maintaining endometrium b) ___________—protects fetal neurons from becoming overexcited and dying…so impact is beyond contracting uterus & milk letdown

Primordial follicle = “not yet spent”, in state of dormancy

Atretic follicles = never will mature

Mature follicles = ready to “erupt”

Secondary & tertiary follicles: “between “primordial & mature”


Corpora lutea


Corpora _______

Buss and Smith (1966) - Elephant CL and CR

Journal of Wildlife Management 30:375-388


Positioning of



that become


“Implanted” =






Site where placenta – fetus

were “connected”…

area heavily pigmented,

resulting in





horns “opened”


left side

right side





horns “opened”


left side

right side


iup hypothesis
IUP Hypothesis
  • IUP = __________________________
  • Determined to affect a variety of behavior patterns in female rodents and suspected for non-rodent species that have litter sizes >3
  • IUP involves the location of a fetus of one sex with respect to its littermates
  • Key results: amount of exposure to ______________________________ ______________________________

__________ = no males either side of her

__________= 1 males on one side of her

_________ = males on each

side of her


OF male

OF male

1F male

2F male

2F male

1F male

iup hypothesis effects
IUP Hypothesis…effects
  • Females exposed to more pre-natal testosterone may ___________________ _________ than littermates receiving it
  • Females more _________________ as littermates including post-weaning
  • Female (gerbils) shown to produce more male offspring if 2M females vs. 1M- or 0M-females…2F females produce more female-biased sex ratios vs. 2M females

Carlson N., editor. 1998. ed. Physiology of Behavior. 6th

edition Allyn and Bacon, Boston, Massachusetts


Number of blood vessels

to individual fetuses


_________ at birth

Argente et al. 2003.

Journal of Animal Science 81:265-273.

in summary
In summary…
  • Look for “evidence” of reproductive activity in the _________
  • Look for CL (or CR) for evidence of near-full or full-term pregnancies in the _________
  • Look for _______________ for evidence of near full-term or full-term individual fetuses
  • ________________, relative to sex of adjacent fetuses, may affect development and aggressive behavior of females post-partum
  • _____________________ at/near a implantation site (of a fetus) can result in increased birth weight for that individual.