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Human Populations. Melody Bender . F actors that affect Human Populations: . Historical Population Sizes Population Distribution Fertility Rates Growth Rates Doubling Times Demographic Transition. Historical Population Sizes.

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human populations

Human Populations

Melody Bender

f actors that affect human populations
Factors that affect Human Populations:
  • Historical Population Sizes
  • Population Distribution
  • Fertility Rates
  • Growth Rates
  • Doubling Times
  • Demographic Transition
historical population sizes
Historical Population Sizes
  • The rapid growth in population is due mainly to the decrease in death rates.
  • Several Factors that Reduce Death Rates:
    • Increased food and efficient distribution (better nutrition)
    • Medical and Public Health Technology Improvements
    • Improvements in sanitation and personal hygiene
    • Safer Water Supplies
  • 3 Historical Surges in Population
    • The use of tools and fire
    • The agricultural Revolution
    • The Industrial and Medical Revolution
  • Population Change= (crude birth rate + immigration) – (crude death rate + emigration)
  • The Actual Growth Rate= (birth rate – death rate)/10
    • The current growth rate is approximately 1.3%
  • Places with the most growth: Africa, Asia, and Latin America. (Less developed countries)
  • Places with slow growth: Europe and North America
  • Places with negative growth: Russia, Germany, Italy, and Japan
fertility rates
Fertility Rates:
  • Replacement Level Fertility(RLF)- the level of fertility at which a couple has only enough children to replace themselves, or 2 children per couple.
    • It takes a RLF of 2.1 to replace each generation.
    • RLF rates are lower in moderately developed countries, and higher in less developed countries due to high infant mortality rates.
  • Total Fertility Rate(TFR)- the average number of children that each woman will have during her lifetime.
  • Highest to Lowest Fertility Rates: Niger(7.46), India(2.73), Mexico(2.42), Israel(2.41), USA(2.09), China(1.73), European Union(1.47), Japan(1.4), Russia(1.28), Hong Kong(.95)


Declines in Fertility Rates are caused by:

  • Higher cost of living
  • Decrease in demand for children to work on farms
  • Contraception/Abortion
  • Increase in educated females and females in the workforce
  • Desire to increase standard of living
  • Postponing marriage due to careers
la la la random

Rule of 70

Strategies to sustain population size:

To find the doubling time of a quantity growing at a given rate, divide the percentage number into 70 to obtain the approximate number of years required to double.


70/ 2%= 35 years

Provide economic incentives to have fewer children

Empower and educate women

Education-> Higher incomes-> less children

Higher education leads to having children later in life

demographic transition
Demographic Transition:
    • The name given to the process that has occurred during the past century. Has four stages.
  • Stage 1: Pre-Industrial
    • Living conditions severe, medical care is non-existent, and food supply is limited, etc
  • Stage 2: Transitional
    • Stage after the start of industrialization.
  • Stage 3: Industrial
    • Urbanization decreases the economic incentives for large families, cost of living increases, increase in opportunities for women, etc.
  • Stage 4: Post-Industrial
    • birth rates=mortality rates, zero population growth is achieved, standard of living is high, etc.

age structure diagrams
Age Structure Diagrams:
  • Determined by birth rate, generation time, death rate, and sex ratios. It is a good indicator of future trends in population growth.
which step of demographic transition is prior to the industrial revolution
Which step of Demographic Transition is prior to the Industrial Revolution?
  • The First Step
  • The Second Step
  • The Third Step
  • The Fourth Step
  • The Fifth Step
where are replacement fertility rates the lowest
Where are Replacement Fertility Rates the lowest?
  • Developed Countries
  • Less Developed Countries
when was the last historical surge in population
When was the last historical surge in population?
  • After the use of tools and fire
  • After The Agricultural Revolution
  • After the Medical/Industrial Revolution
which of the following countries is having negative growth
Which of the following countries is having negative growth?
  • The United States
  • Australia
  • Germany
  • Brazil